P90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 promotes invasion and metastasis of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells. J Clin Invest

Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.
The Journal of clinical investigation (Impact Factor: 13.22). 03/2010; 120(4):1165-77. DOI: 10.1172/JCI40582
Source: PubMed


Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common types of human cancer and frequently metastasizes to LNs. Identifying metastasis-promoting factors is of immense clinical interest, as the prognosis for patients with even a single unilateral LN metastasis is extremely poor. Here, we report that p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) promotes human HNSCC cell invasion and metastasis. We determined that RSK2 was overexpressed and activated in highly invasive HNSCC cell lines compared with poorly invasive cell lines. Expression of RSK2 also correlated with metastatic progression in patients with HNSCC. Ectopic expression of RSK2 substantially enhanced the invasive capacity of HNSCC cells, while inhibition of RSK2 activity led to marked attenuation of invasion in vitro. Additionally, shRNA knockdown of RSK2 substantially reduced the invasive and metastatic potential of HNSCC cells in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model, respectively. Mechanistically, we determined that cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and Hsp27 are phosphorylated and activated by RSK2 and are important for the RSK2-mediated invasive ability of HNSCC cells. Our findings suggest that RSK2 is involved in the prometastatic programming of HNSCC cells, through phosphorylation of proteins in a putative signaling network. Moreover, targeting RSK2 markedly attenuates in vitro invasion and in vivo metastasis of HNSCC cells, suggesting that RSK2 may represent a therapeutic target in the treatment of metastatic HNSCC.

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    • "c o m / l o c a t e / b b a m c r invasive HNSCC cell lines, RSK2 was found to be overexpressed, and its knockdown was shown to reduce metastasis in an animal model. On the other hand, silencing of RSK1 in HNSCC cells did not affect their invasiveness [11]. However, RSK1 was demonstrated to be a negative regulator of non-small cell lung cancer progression, in which RSK1 expression was shown to be decreased in secondary versus primary lesions. "
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    ABSTRACT: The members of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) family of Ser/Thr kinases are downstream effectors of MAPK/ERK pathway that regulate diverse cellular processes including cell growth, proliferation and survival. In carcinogenesis, RSKs are thought to modulate cell motility, invasion and metastasis. Herein, we have studied an involvement of RSKs in FGF2/FGFR2-driven behaviours of mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells. We found that both silencing and inhibiting of FGFR2 attenuated phosphorylation of RSKs, whereas FGFR2 overexpression and/or its stimulation with FGF2 enhanced RSKs activity. Moreover, treatment with ERK, Src and p38 inhibitors revealed that p38 kinase acts as an upstream RSK2 regulator. We demonstrate for the first time that in FGF2/FGFR2 signalling, p38 but not MEK/ERK, indirectly activated RSK2 at Tyr529, which facilitated phosphorylation of its other residues (Thr359/Ser363, Thr573 and Ser380). In contrast to FGF2-triggered signalling, inhibition of p38 in the EGF pathway affected only RSK2-Tyr529, without any impact on the remaining RSK phosphorylation sites. p38-mediated phosphorylation of RSK2-Tyr529 was crucial for transactivation of residues located at kinase C-terminal domain and linker-region, specifically, in the FGF2/FGFR2 signalling pathway. Furthermore, we show that FGF2 promoted anchorage-independent cell proliferation, formation of focal adhesions and cell migration, which was effectively abolished by treatment with RSKs inhibitor (FMK). These indicate that RSK2 activity is indispensable for FGF2/FGFR2-mediated cellular effects. Our findings identified a new FGF2/FGFR2-p38-RSK2 pathway which may play a significant role in the pathogenesis and progression of breast cancer, and hence, may present a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of FGFR2-expressing tumours.
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    • "For phosphorylation antibody arrays, each slide consists of an array of well-characterized antibody with six replicates and multiple positive and negative controls to maximize data reliability. Its efficiency and validity have been confirmed by several studies [12, 15, 16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Salvianolic acid A (SAA), one of the major active components of Danshen that is a traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported to possess protective effect in cardiac diseases and antioxidative activity. This study aims to investigate the cardioprotection of SAA in vivo and in vitro using the model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in rat and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts apoptosis. It was found that SAA significantly limited infarct size of ischemic myocardium when given immediately prior to reperfusion. SAA also significantly suppressed cellular injury and apoptotic cell death. Additionally, the results of western blot and phospho-specific antibody microarray analysis showed that SAA could up-regulate Bcl-2 expression and increase the phosphorylation of proteins such as Akt, p42/p44 extracellular signal-related kinases (Erk1/2), and their related effectors. The phosphorylation of those points was related to suppress apoptosis. In summary, SAA possesses marked protective effect on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, which is related to its ability to reduce myocardial cell apoptosis and damage induced by oxidative stress. The protection is achieved via up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and affecting protein phosphorylation. These findings indicate that SAA may be of value in cardioprotection during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, which provide pharmacological evidence for clinical application.
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    • "Manipulation of RSK2 levels by RNA interference demonstrates a clear dependence of RSK2 expression levels in modulating invasion in Matrigel transwell assays. Similar results were obtained in a xenograft mouse model, where cells with stable knockdown of RSK2 had less metastatic potential than controls [65]. Previous in vitro work identified RSK2 as a critical regulator in cellular transformation [66] and though not extensively studied in head and neck cancer, the versatility of RSK2 makes it a worthwhile target for additional investigation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a heterogeneous cancer that arises in the upper aerodigestive tract. Despite advances in knowledge and treatment of this disease, the five-year survival rate after diagnosis of advanced (stage 3 and 4) HNSCC remains approximately 50%. One reason for the large degree of mortality associated with late stage HNSCC is the intrinsic ability of tumor cells to undergo locoregional invasion. Lymph nodes in the cervical region are the primary sites of metastasis for HNSCC, occurring before the formation of distant metastases. The presence of lymph node metastases is strongly associated with poor patient outcome, resulting in increased consideration being given to the development and implementation of anti-invasive strategies. In this review, we focus on select proteins that have been recently identified as promoters of lymph node metastasis in HNSCC. The discussed proteins are involved in a wide range of critical cellular functions, and offer a more comprehensive understanding of the factors involved in HNSCC metastasis while additionally providing increased options for consideration in the design of future therapeutic intervention strategies.
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