Progesterone receptor enhances breast cancer cell motility and invasion via extranuclear activation of focal adhesion kinase
ABSTRACT While progesterone plays multiple roles in the process of breast development and differentiation, its role in breast cancer is less understood. We have shown previously that progestins stimulate breast cancer cell migration and invasion because of the activation of rapid signaling cascades leading to modifications in the actin cytoskeleton and cell membrane that are required for cell movement. In this study, we have investigated the effects of progesterone on the formation of focal adhesion (FA) complexes, which provide anchoring sites for cell attachment to the extracellular matrix during cell movement and invasion. In T47-D breast cancer cells, progesterone rapidly enhances FA kinase (FAK) phosphorylation at Tyr(397) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. As a result, exposure to progesterone leads to increased formation of FA complexes within specialized cell membrane protrusions. The cascade of events required for this phenomenon involves progesterone receptor interaction with the tyrosine kinase c-Src, which activates the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt pathway and the small GTPase RhoA/Rho-associated kinase complex. In the presence of progesterone, T47-D breast cancer cells display enhanced horizontal migration and invasion of three-dimensional matrices, which is reversed by small interfering RNAs abrogating FAK. In conclusion, progesterone promotes breast cancer cell movement and invasion by facilitating the formation of FA complexes via the rapid regulation of FAK. These results provide novel mechanistic views on the effects of progesterone on breast cancer progression, and may in the future be helpful to develop new strategies for the treatment of endocrine-sensitive breast cancers.
- SourceAvailable from: Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Progesterone (P4) promotes cell proliferation in several types of cancer, including brain tumors such as astrocytomas, the most common and aggressive primary intracerebral neoplasm in humans. In this work, we studied the effects of P4 and its intracellular receptor antagonist, RU486, on growth and infiltration of U373 cells derived from a human astrocytoma grade III, implanted in the motor cortex of adult male rats, using two treatment schemes. In the first one, fifteen days after cells implantation, rats were daily subcutaneously treated with vehicle (propylene glycol, 160 μ L), P4 (1 mg), RU486 (5 mg), or P4 + RU486 (1 mg and 5 mg, resp.) for 21 days. In the second one, treatments started 8 weeks after cells implantation and lasted for 14 days. In both schemes we found that P4 significantly increased the tumor area as compared with the rest of the treatments, whereas RU486 blocked P4 effects. All rats treated with P4 showed tumor infiltration, while 28.6% and 42.9% of the animals treated with RU486 and P4 + RU486, respectively, presented it. Our data suggest that P4 promotes growth and migration of human astrocytoma cells implanted in the motor cortex of the rat through the interaction with its intracellular receptor.BioMed Research International 05/2014; 2014:393174. DOI:10.1155/2014/393174 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper reviews work on progesterone and the progesterone receptor (PR) in the mouse mammary gland that has been used extensively as an experimental model. Studies have led to the concept that progesterone controls proliferation and morphogenesis of the luminal epithelium in a tightly orchestrated manner at distinct stages of development by paracrine signaling pathways, including receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) as a major paracrine factor. Progesterone also drives expansion of stem cells by paracrine signals to generate progenitors required for alveologenesis. During mid-to-late pregnancy, progesterone has another role to suppress secretory activation until parturition mediated in part by crosstalk between PR and prolactin/Stat5 signaling to inhibit induction of milk protein gene expression, and by inhibiting tight junction closure. In models of hormone-dependent mouse mammary tumors, the progesterone/PR signaling axis enhances pre-neoplastic progression by a switch from a paracrine to an autocrine mode of proliferation and dysregulation of the RANKL signaling pathway. Limited experiments with normal human breast show that progesterone/PR signaling also stimulates epithelial cell proliferation by a paracrine mechanism; however, the signaling pathways and whether RANKL is a major mediator remains unknown. Work with human breast cancer cell lines, patient tumor samples and clinical studies indicates that progesterone is a risk factor for breast cancer and that alteration in progesterone/PR signaling pathways contributes to early stage human breast cancer progression. However, loss of PR expression in primary tumors is associated with a less differentiated more invasive phenotype and worse prognosis, suggesting that PR may limit later stages of tumor progression.Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 12/2011; 357(1-2):4-17. DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2011.10.030 · 4.24 Impact Factor