Immunohistochemistry for cell polarity protein lethal giant larvae 2 differentiates pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-3 and ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas from lower-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias
ABSTRACT Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia is a precursor to ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas that shows gastric differentiation. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-3 has the highest potential to progress to adenocarcinoma, and its distinction from lower-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias is important for clinical management. However, morphologic grading of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia suffers from significant interobserver variability. A product of cell polarity gene lethal giant larvae 2 is a marker of gastric foveolar epithelium expressed in a basolateral fashion, which is lost or mislocalized in gastric epithelial dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. In this study, we investigated a role of lethal giant larvae 2 expression in differentiating low-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias, that is, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-1 and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-2, from pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-3 and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The immunohistochemical patterns of lethal giant larvae 2 expression were examined in normal pancreatic ducts, 48 pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions of all histologic grades, and 91 adenocarcinomas on a tissue microarray or conventional sections. The expression pattern was recorded as basolateral, cytoplasmic, negative, or combinations of any of them. Whereas normal duct epithelia did not exhibit lethal giant larvae immunoreactivity, all but one lesion of low-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia showed basolateral lethal giant larvae staining. Conversely, all lesions of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-3 and adenocarcinoma showed loss of lethal giant larvae 2 staining and/or its cytoplasmic localization. Interestingly, a basolateral expression was focally seen in 4 adenocarcinomas with a foamy gland pattern and was always admixed with negatively stained areas. In conclusion, our results show that low-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias express lethal giant larvae 2 in a basolateral fashion recapitulating expression in normal gastric epithelium. Loss or abnormal lethal giant larvae 2 expression is seen in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-3 and adenocarcinoma and might be useful in separating them from lower-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias.
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- "In addition, in a very recent study, aPKC overexpression has been found associated with the loss of Lgl2, a component of the SCRIB polarity complex, in foveolar-type gastric dysplasia suggesting their combined evaluation useful to refine dysplasia diagnosis129. The immunohistochemical determination of Lgl2 expression has also provided to be useful in separating pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-3 and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma from lower-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias; in fact, while loss or abnormal Lgl2 expression is seen in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-3 and adenocarcinoma, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-1 and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-2 express the protein in a normal-like basolateral fashion130. "
ABSTRACT: Loss of cell-cell adhesion and cell polarity is commonly observed in tumors of epithelial origin and correlates with their invasion into adjacent tissues and formation of metastases. Growing evidence indicates that loss of cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion may also be important in early stage of cancer. In first part of this review, we delineate the current understanding of the mechanisms that establish and maintain the polarity of epithelial tissues and discuss the involvement of cell polarity and apical junctional complex components in tumor pathogenesis. In the second part we address the clinical significance of cell polarity and junctional complex components in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Finally, we explore their potential use as therapeutic targets in the treatment of cancer.Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 05/2011; 32(5):552-64. DOI:10.1038/aps.2011.20 · 2.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lethal giant larvae proteins have key roles in regulating polarity in a variety of cell types and function as tumour suppressors. A transcriptional programme initiated by aberrant Snail expression transforms epithelial cells to potentially aggressive cancer cells. Although progress in defining the molecular determinants of this programme has been made, we have little knowledge as to how the Snail-induced phenotype can be suppressed. In our studies we identified the human lethal giant larvae homologue 2, Hugl-2, (Llgl2/Lgl2) polarity gene as downregulated by Snail. Snail binds E-boxes in the Hugl-2 promoter and represses Hugl-2 expression, whereas removal of the E-boxes releases Hugl-2 from Snail repression. We demonstrate that inducing Hugl-2 in cells with constitutive Snail expression reverses the phenotype including changes in morphology, motility, tumour growth and dissemination in vivo, and expression of epithelial markers. Hugl-2 expression reduced the nuclear localization of Snail and thus binding of Snail to its target promoters. Our results placing Hugl-2 within the Snail network as well as its ability to suppress Snail carcinogenesis identifies Hugl-2 as a target molecule driving cascades, which may have preventative and therapeutic promise to minimize cancer progression.Oncogene advance online publication, 14 May 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.162.Oncogene 05/2012; 32(11). DOI:10.1038/onc.2012.162 · 8.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One-fifth of patients with seemingly 'curable' pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) experience an early recurrence and death, receiving no definable benefit from a major operation. Some patients with advanced stage tumors are deemed 'unresectable' by conventional staging criteria (e.g. liver metastasis), yet progress slowly. Effective biomarkers that stratify PDA based on biologic behavior are needed. To help researchers sort through the maze of biomarker data, a compendium of ∼2500 published candidate biomarkers in PDA was compiled (PLoS Med, 2009. 6(4) p. e1000046). Building on this compendium, we constructed a survival tissue microarray (termed s-TMA) comprised of short-term (cancer-specific death <12 months, n = 58) and long-term survivors (>30 months, n = 79) who underwent resection for PDA (total, n = 137). The s-TMA functions as a biological filter to identify bona fide prognostic markers associated with survival group extremes (at least 18 months separate survival groups). Based on a stringent selection process, 13 putative PDA biomarkers were identified from the public biomarker repository. Candidates were tested against the s-TMA by immunohistochemistry to identify the best markers of tumor biology. In a multivariate model, MUC1 (odds ratio, OR = 28.95, 3+ vs. negative expression, p = 0.004) and MSLN (OR = 12.47, 3+ vs. negative expression, p = 0.01) were highly predictive of early cancer-specific death. By comparison, pathologic factors (size, lymph node metastases, resection margin status, and grade) had ORs below three, and none reached statistical significance. ROC curves were used to compare the four pathologic prognostic features (ROC area = 0.70) to three univariate molecular predictors (MUC1, MSLN, MUC2) of survival group (ROC area = 0.80, p = 0.07). MUC1 and MSLN were superior to pathologic features and other putative biomarkers as predicting survival group. Molecular assays comparing cancers from short and long survivors are an effective strategy to screen biomarkers and prioritize candidate cancer genes for diagnostic and therapeutic studies.PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e40157. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0040157 · 3.23 Impact Factor