Induction of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats by a single dose of 9, 10 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and the chemopreventive role of diclofenac.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the chemopreventive efficacy of Diclofenac, a preferential cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibiting non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in the 9, 10 Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced experimental lung carcinogenesis.
Animals were divided into 4 groups. Control group received normal saline intratratracheally. DMBA group was given DMBA (20 mg/kg of body weight) in the similar manner. DMBA+Diclofenac group was given daily oral dose of Diclofenac (8 mg/kg of body weight) in addition to DMBA while the last group received Diclofenac only. Animals were sacrificed after 24 weeks. COX-2 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western immunoblotting. For apoptosis study DNA fragmentation on agarose gel and florescent staining of alveolar macrophages were done.
The incidence and burden of tumor were reduced by the Diclofenac treatment. Diclofenac caused the reduction in the COX-2 levels which were increased in the DMBA treated group. It also caused the induction of apoptosis as seen by both techniques.
From all these results it can be concluded that Diclofenac might have a chemopreventive role for lung carcinogenesis which is mediated by suppression of COX-2 enzyme and induction of apoptosis.
- SourceAvailable from: nwpii.comAmerican Journal of Biomedical Sciences. 01/2009;
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inflammation plays a critical role in cancer progression. In this study we investigate the pro-tumorigenic activities and gene expression profiles of lung cancer cells after interaction with macrophages. We measured intratumoral microvessel counts and macrophage density in 41 lung cancer tumor specimens and correlated these with the patients' clinical outcome. The interaction between macrophages and cancer cell lines was assessed using a transwell coculture system. The invasive potential was evaluated by in vitro invasion assay. The matrix-degrading activity was assayed by gelatin zymography. The microarray was applied to a large-scale analysis of the genes involved in the interaction, as well as to monitor the gene expression profiles of lung cancer cells responding to anti-inflammatory drugs in cocultures. The macrophage density positively correlated with microvessel counts and negatively correlated with patient relapse-free survival (P < .05). After coculture with macrophages, lung cancer cell lines exhibited higher invasive potentials and matrix-degrading activities. We identified 50 genes by microarray that were upregulated more than two-fold in cancer cells after coculture. Northern blot analyses confirmed some gene expression such as interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and matrix metalloproteinase 9. The two-dimensional hierarchical clustering also demonstrated that the gene expression profiles of lung cancer cells responding to various anti-inflammatory drugs in cocultures are distinct. The interaction of lung cancer cells and macrophages can promote the invasiveness and matrix-degrading activity of cancer cells. Our results also suggest that a great diversity of gene expression occurs in this interaction, which may assist us in understanding the process of cancer metastasis.Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2005; 23(5):953-64. · 18.04 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The response of the body to a cancer is not a unique mechanism but has many parallels with inflammation and wound healing. This article reviews the links between cancer and inflammation and discusses the implications of these links for cancer prevention and treatment. We suggest that the inflammatory cells and cytokines found in tumours are more likely to contribute to tumour growth, progression, and immunosuppression than they are to mount an effective host antitumour response. Moreover cancer susceptibility and severity may be associated with functional polymorphisms of inflammatory cytokine genes, and deletion or inhibition of inflammatory cytokines inhibits development of experimental cancer. If genetic damage is the "match that lights the fire" of cancer, some types of inflammation may provide the "fuel that feeds the flames". Over the past ten years information about the cytokine and chemokine network has led to development of a range of cytokine/chemokine antagonists targeted at inflammatory and allergic diseases. The first of these to enter the clinic, tumour necrosis factor antagonists, have shown encouraging efficacy. In this article we have provided a rationale for the use of cytokine and chemokine blockade, and further investigation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, in the chemoprevention and treatment of malignant diseases.The Lancet 03/2001; 357(9255):539-45. · 39.06 Impact Factor