The association between physical activity (PA) and inflammation has been established in adults, yet little is known about this relationship in youth. This study examined the relationship between vigorous PA and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adolescents.
Data were available for 1 520 adolescents, aged 13 and 16 years, in a province-wide survey of a representative sample of youth in Québec, Canada. Participants completed questionnaires assessing VPA, pubertal stage, body image, and health problems; they provided a fasting blood sample for CRP; and they had height and weight measured.
In sex-specific multivariable logistic regression models, VPA was protective of elevated CRP in boys (OR=0.60, 95%CI=0.37-0.99) independent of weight status, pubertal stage, anti-inflammatory/antibiotic medication, and smoking. CRP and physical activity were not related in girls (OR=1.12, 95%CI=0.69-1.82).
In addition to many known health benefits of VPA, the current findings provide evidence that VPA may protect against low-grade systemic inflammation in boys. These data provide further support for the importance of promoting healthy PA levels in youth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies relating physical activity (PA) to weight gain in children have produced mixed results, although there is some evidence for stronger associations with more intense physical activities. The present study tested the hypothesis that weight gain over one year in 8-10 year olds would be more strongly predicted by moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) than total physical activity (total PA) or sedentary behaviour.
Participants were 280 children taking part in the Physical Exercise and Appetite in Children Study (PEACHES). Weight status was assessed using body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), and waist circumference (WC) in school Year 4 (baseline; age 8.7 yrs) and Year 5 (follow-up; age 9.7 yrs). Physical activity was measured at baseline using the Actigraph GT1M accelerometer to assess total PA (mean accelerometers counts per minute), MVPA; ≥ 4000 counts per minute) and sedentary time (<100 counts per minute).
After adjustment for baseline BMI, SES, sex and ethnicity, MVPA was significantly associated with follow-up BMI (adjusted β = -0.07; p = 0.002). This association was independent of total PA or sedentary time. Similar results were observed for FMI; again MVPA was significantly associated with follow up FMI (β = -0.16; p = 0.001) independent of total PA or sedentary time. The pattern was similar for WC (β = -0.07), but the association between MVPA and WC did not reach significance at p = 0.06.
The results of this study strongly support promotion of MVPA in children.
PLoS ONE 04/2011; 6(4):e18576. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0018576 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assessed the changes in time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on fat depots, insulin action, and inflammation. Longitudinal data were generated from 66 Hispanic adolescents (15.6±1.1 yr; BMI percentile 97.1±3.0) who participated in a 16-wk nutrition or nutrition+exercise intervention. There were no effects of the intervention on PA, but there were inter-individual changes in PA. For purposes of this analysis, all intervention groups were combined to assess how changes in PA during 16 wk affected changes in adiposity, insulin action, and markers of inflammation. MVPA was assessed by 7-day accelerometry, total body fat via DXA, liver fat by MRI, and insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR via a fasting blood draw. A repeated measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of MVPA on fat depots, insulin action, and inflammatory markers. Sixty-two percent of participants increased MVPA (mean increase, 19.7±16.5 min/day) and 38% decreased MVPA (mean decrease, 10.7±10.1 min/day). Those who increased MVPA by as little as 20 min per day over 16 wk, compared to those who decreased MVPA, had significant reductions in liver fat (-13% vs. +3%; P=0.01), leptin levels (-18% vs. +4%; P=0.02), and fasting insulin (-23% vs. +5%; P=0.05). These findings indicate that a modest increase in MVPA can improve metabolic health in sedentary overweight Hispanic adolescents.
Journal of Exercise Physiology Online 04/2012; 15(2):40-54.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the 19(th) century, many studies have enlightened the role of inflammation in atherosclerosis, changing our perception of "vessel plaque due to oxidized lipoproteins", similar to a "rusted pipe", towards a disease with involvement of many cell types and cytokines with more complex mechanisms. Although "physical activity" and "physical exercise" are two terms with some differences in meaning, compared to sedentary lifestyle, active people have lower cardiovascular risk and lower inflammatory markers. Activities of skeletal muscle reveal "myokines" which have roles in both the immune system and adipose tissue metabolism. In vitro and ex-vivo studies have shown beneficial effects of exercise on inflammation markers. Meanwhile in clinical studies, some conflicting results suggested that type of activity, exercise duration, body composition, gender, race and age may modulate anti-inflammatory effects of physical exercise. Medical data on patients with inflammatory diseases have shown beneficial effects of exercise on disease activity scores, patient well-being and inflammatory markers. Although the most beneficial type of activity and the most relevant patient group for anti-inflammatory benefits are still not clear, studies in elderly and adult people generally support anti-inflammatory effects of physical activity and moderate exercise could be advised to patients with cardiovascular risk such as patients with metabolic syndrome.
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