Structural and cellular features in metaphyseal and diaphyseal periosteum of osteoporotic rats

Bone Tissue Engineering, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove Campus, Brisbane, Qld 4059, Australia.
Journal of molecular histology (Impact Factor: 1.82). 03/2010; 41(1):51-60. DOI: 10.1007/s10735-010-9261-y
Source: PubMed


Despite the important physiological role of periosteum in the pathogenesis and treatment of osteoporosis, little is known about the structural and cellular characteristics of periosteum in osteoporosis. To study the structural and cellular differences in both diaphyseal and metaphyseal periosteum of osteoporotic rats, samples from the right femur of osteoporotic and normal female Lewis rats were collected and tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, antibodies or staining kit against tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), von Willebrand (vWF), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The results showed that the osteoporotic rats had much thicker and more cellular cambial layer of metaphyseal periosteum compared with other periosteal areas and normal rats (P < 0.001). The number of TRAP(+) osteoclasts in bone resorption pits, VEGF(+) cells and the degree of vascularization were found to be greater in the cambial layer of metaphyseal periosteum of osteoporotic rats (P < 0.05), while no significant difference was detected in the number of ALP(+) cells between the two groups. Sympathetic nerve fibers identified by TH staining were predominantly located in the cambial layer of metaphyseal periosteum of osteoporotic rats. No obvious difference in the expression of CGRP between the two groups was found. In conclusion, periosteum may play an important role in the cortical bone resorption in osteoporotic rats and this pathological process may be regulated by the sympathetic nervous system.

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