Erectile Dysfunction Predicts Cardiovascular Events in High-Risk Patients Receiving Telmisartan, Ramipril, or Both The ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial/Telmisartan Randomized AssessmeNt Study in ACE iNtolerant subjects with cardiovascular Disease (ONTARGET/TRANSCEND) Trials
ABSTRACT Although erectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis, it is not known whether the presence of ED is predictive of future events in individuals with cardiovascular disease. We evaluated whether ED is predictive of mortality and cardiovascular outcomes, and because inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system in high-risk patients reduces cardiovascular events, we also tested the effects on ED of randomized treatments with telmisartan, ramipril, and the combination of the 2 drugs (ONTARGET), as well as with telmisartan or placebo in patients who were intolerant of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (TRANSCEND).
In a prespecified substudy, 1549 patients underwent double-blind randomization, with 400 participants assigned to receive ramipril, 395 telmisartan, and 381 the combination thereof (ONTARGET), as well as 171 participants assigned to receive telmisartan and 202 placebo (TRANSCEND). ED was evaluated at baseline, at 2-year follow-up, and at the penultimate visit before closeout. ED was predictive of all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR] 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21 to 2.81, P=0.005) and the composite primary outcome (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.94, P=0.029), which consisted of cardiovascular death (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.29, P=0.016), myocardial infarction (HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.58, P=0.017), hospitalization for heart failure (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.26, P=0.563), and stroke (HR 1.1, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.9, P=0.742). The study medications did not influence the course or development of ED.
ED is a potent predictor of all-cause death and the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure in men with cardiovascular disease. Trial treatment did not significantly improve or worsen ED.
URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT 00153101.
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ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate the impact of representative antihypertensive drugs of 5 classes on the sexual function in male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at doses that achieved similar blood pressure (BP) reduction. The experiment was performed in 6 groups of male SHR. The dose are 20 μg/kg/day for clonidine, 3 mg/kg/day for enalapril, 20 mg/kg/day for atenolol, 2 mg/kg/day for amlodipine, and 10 mg/kg/day for dihydrochlorothiazide. SHR were treated for 3 months, and then the penile erection and sexual behavior were detected. After BP recording, SHR were killed to evaluate the organ-damage, weight of accessory sex organs and levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone in serum. Five drugs had the similar efficacy on BP reduction. All drugs except of enalapril, significantly prolonged the mount latency, and decreased the mount frequency (P<0.05). Clonidine also reduced the conception rate (45% vs. 80% in control group, P<0.05). Amlodipine and dihydrochlorothiazide significantly increased the testosterone level (0.79±0.30, 0.80±0.34 vs. 0.49±0.20 in control group, unit: ng/dl, P<0.05). Enalapril, atenolol and amlodipine also significantly decreased the BP variability (systolic, 8.2±2.5, 7.6±1.8, 8.9±2.0 vs. 12.2±3.8 in control group, unit: mm Hg). All these drugs significantly decreased the organ-damage (P<0.05). In conclusion, long-term treatment with 5 common antihypertensive drugs possessed obvious organ protection in SHR. Clonidine, atenolol, amlodipine and dihydrochlorothiazide, but not enalapril, impair sexual function.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0116155. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116155 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Sexual dysfunction is a potential side effect of cardiovascular drugs: this article is a critical review of the current literature. Many studies have been published on this topic. Most of these studies are not methodologically robust, few are RCTs and most did not use a validated rating scale to evaluate sexual functioning. In addition, other methodological flaws limit greatly the conclusions of these studies. Most studies relate to male populations and only a few have been conducted on women. Also, the majority of studies on sexual dysfunction induced by cardiovascular drugs relate to antihypertensive drugs. While there is evidence to suggest that older antihypertensive drugs (diuretics, beta-blockers, centrally acting agents) have a negative impact on erectile function, newer agents seem to have either neutral (ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists) or beneficial effects (i. e., angiotensin receptor blockers, nebivolol). Other cardiovascular drugs analyzed in this review also appear to have an inhibitory action on sexual function. For men, there is some weak evidence supporting the use of specific treatment strategies for sexual dysfunction associated with these drugs. Methods: This study was conducted in 2014 using the paper and electronic resources of the library of the "Azienda Provinciale per i Servizi Sanitari (APSS)" in Trento, Italy (http://atoz.ebsco.com/Titles/2793). The library has access to a wide range of databases including DYNAMED, MEDLINE Full Text, CINAHL Plus Full Text, The Cochrane Library, Micromedex healthcare series, BMJ Clinical Evidence. The full list of available journals can be viewed at http://atoz.ebsco.com/Titles/2793 or at the APSS web site (http://www.apss.tn.it). In completing this review, a literature search was conducted using the key words "cardiovascular", "adrenergic beta antagonist", "α1-adrenoceptor antagonist", "angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor", "angiotensin receptor antagonist", "angiotensin receptor blocker", "beta blocker", "beta receptor antagonist", "calcium channel blocker", "diuretic", "antihypertensive", "sexual dysfunction", "sexual side effects", "treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction". All resulting listed articles were reviewed. Conclusion: The review includes studies that investigated the relationship between these drug treatments and sexual dysfunction. The purpose was to identify possible intervention strategies for sexual dysfunction related to these drugs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.Pharmacopsychiatry 11/2014; 48(01). DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1395515 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IntroductionErectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, the association between change in ED status over time and future underlying CVD risk is unclear.AimThe aim of this study was to investigate the association between change in ED status and Framingham CVD risk, as well change in Framingham risk.Methods We studied 965 men free of CVD in the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey, a longitudinal cohort study with three assessments. ED was assessed with the five-item International Index of Erectile Function at BACH I (2002–2005) and BACH II (2007–2010) and classified as no ED/transient ED/persistent ED. CVD risk was assessed with 10-year Framingham CVD risk algorithm at BACH I and BACH III (2010–2012). Linear regression models controlled for baseline age, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, as well as baseline Framingham risk. Models were also stratified by age (≥/< 50 years).Main Outcome MeasuresFramingham CVD risk and change in Framingham CVD risk were the main outcome measures.ResultsTransient and persistent ED was significantly associated with increased Framingham risk and change in risk over time in univariate and age-adjusted models. In younger men, persistent ED was associated with a Framingham risk that was 1.58 percentage points higher (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11, 3.06) and in older men, a Framingham risk that was 2.54 percentage points higher (95% CI: −1.5, 6.59), compared with those without ED. Change in Framingham risk over time was also associated with transient and persistent ED in men <50 years, but not in older men.Conclusions Data suggest that even after taking into account other CVD risk factors, transient and persistent ED is associated with Framingham CVD risk and a greater increase in Framingham risk over time, particularly in younger men. Findings further support clinical assessment of CVD risk in men presenting with ED, especially those under 50 years. Fang SC, Rosen RC, Vita JA, Ganz P, and Kupelian V. Changes in erectile dysfunction over time in relation to Framingham cardiovascular risk in the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey. J Sex Med **;**:**–**.Journal of Sexual Medicine 11/2014; 12(1). DOI:10.1111/jsm.12715 · 3.15 Impact Factor