Gender and depressive symptoms in 711 patients with bipolar disorder evaluated prospectively in the Stanley Foundation bipolar treatment outcome network.
ABSTRACT The authors assessed gender differences in the proportion of clinical visits spent depressed, manic, or euthymic in patients with bipolar disorder.
Data were analyzed from 711 patients with bipolar I or II disorder who were followed prospectively over 7 years (13,191 visits). The main outcome measures were the presence of symptoms of depression or of hypomania or mania, measured by the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology and the Young Mania Rating Scale. Data were analyzed using three separate repeated-measures regressions with a logistic link function to model the probability that an individual was depressed, manic, or euthymic. The models controlled for bipolar I or bipolar II diagnosis, rapid cycling, age, time in the study, comorbid anxiety disorders, and comorbid substance use disorders.
In approximately half of visits, patients had depressive, manic, or hypomanic symptoms. The likelihood of having depressive symptoms was significantly greater for women than for men. This was accounted for by higher rates in women of rapid cycling and anxiety disorders, each of which was associated with increased rates of depression. All patient groups showed an increase in number of euthymic visits and a decrease in number of visits with depressive and manic symptoms with increased time in study.
Bipolar patients spend a substantial proportion of their time ill. Significant gender differences exist, with women spending a greater proportion of their visits in the depressive pole. This finding appears to be related to the corresponding differences in rates of rapid cycling and anxiety disorders.
- SourceAvailable from: Alina Aikaterini Karanti[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Gender differences in treatment that are not supported by empirical evidence have been reported in several areas of medicine. Here, the aim was to evaluate potential gender differences in the treatment for bipolar disorder. METHODS: Data was collected from the Swedish National Quality Assurance Register for bipolar disorder (BipoläR). Baseline registrations from the period 2004-2011 of 7354 patients were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to study the impact of gender on interventions. RESULTS: Women were more often treated with antidepressants, lamotrigine, electroconvulsive therapy, benzodiazepines, and psychotherapy. Men were more often treated with lithium. There were no gender differences in treatment with mood stabilizers as a group, neuroleptics, or valproate. Subgroup analyses revealed that ECT was more common in women only in the bipolar I subgroup. Contrariwise, lamotrigine was more common in women only in the bipolar II subgroup. LIMITATIONS: As BipoläR contains data on outpatient treatment of persons with bipolar disorder in Sweden, it is unclear if these findings translate to inpatient care and to outpatient treatment in other countries. CONCLUSIONS: Men and women with bipolar disorder receive different treatments in routine clinical settings in Sweden. Gender differences in level of functioning, bipolar subtype, or severity of bipolar disorder could not explain the higher prevalence of pharmacological treatment, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychotherapy in women. Our results suggest that clinicians׳ treatment decisions are to some extent unduly influenced by patients׳ gender.Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2014; 174C:303-309. · 3.76 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It is still unclear which biological changes are needed to recover from a major depressive episode. Current perspectives focus on cortical synaptic neuroplasticity. Measures of cortical responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) change with sleep homeostasic pressure in humans and approximate measures of synaptic strength in animal models. Using repeated total sleep deprivation as a model of antidepressant treatment, we aimed to correlate recovery from depression with these measures of cortical excitability.Bipolar Disorders 09/2014; · 4.89 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder is characterized by debilitating episodes of depression and mood elevation (mania or hypomania). For most patients, depressive symptoms are more pervasive than mood elevation or mixed symptoms, and thus have been reported in individual studies to impose a greater burden on affected individuals, caregivers, and society. This article reviews and compiles the literature on the prevalence and burden of syndromal as well as subsyndromal presentations of depression in bipolar disorder patients. The PubMed database was searched for English-language articles using the search terms "bipolar disorder," "bipolar depression," "burden," "caregiver burden," "cost," "costs," "economic," "epidemiology," "prevalence," "quality of life," and "suicide." Search results were manually reviewed, and relevant studies were selected for inclusion as appropriate. Additional references were obtained manually from reviewing the reference lists of selected articles found by computerized search. In aggregate, the findings support the predominance of depressive symptoms compared with mood elevation/mixed symptoms in the course of bipolar illness, and thus an overall greater burden in terms of economic costs, functioning, caregiver burden, and suicide. This review, although comprehensive, provides a study-wise aggregate (rather than a patient-wise meta-analytic) summary of the relevant literature on this topic. In light of its pervasiveness and prevalence, more effective and aggressive treatments for bipolar depression are warranted to mitigate its profound impact upon individuals and society. Such studies could benefit by including metrics not only for mood outcomes, but also for illness burden. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2014; 169S1:S3-S11. · 3.76 Impact Factor