Gender and Depressive Symptoms in 711 Patients With Bipolar Disorder Evaluated Prospectively in the Stanley Foundation Bipolar Treatment Outcome Network
ABSTRACT The authors assessed gender differences in the proportion of clinical visits spent depressed, manic, or euthymic in patients with bipolar disorder.
Data were analyzed from 711 patients with bipolar I or II disorder who were followed prospectively over 7 years (13,191 visits). The main outcome measures were the presence of symptoms of depression or of hypomania or mania, measured by the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology and the Young Mania Rating Scale. Data were analyzed using three separate repeated-measures regressions with a logistic link function to model the probability that an individual was depressed, manic, or euthymic. The models controlled for bipolar I or bipolar II diagnosis, rapid cycling, age, time in the study, comorbid anxiety disorders, and comorbid substance use disorders.
In approximately half of visits, patients had depressive, manic, or hypomanic symptoms. The likelihood of having depressive symptoms was significantly greater for women than for men. This was accounted for by higher rates in women of rapid cycling and anxiety disorders, each of which was associated with increased rates of depression. All patient groups showed an increase in number of euthymic visits and a decrease in number of visits with depressive and manic symptoms with increased time in study.
Bipolar patients spend a substantial proportion of their time ill. Significant gender differences exist, with women spending a greater proportion of their visits in the depressive pole. This finding appears to be related to the corresponding differences in rates of rapid cycling and anxiety disorders.
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ABSTRACT: Sleep disturbance is bi-directionally related to mood de-stabilization in bipolar disorder (BD), and sleep quality differs in men and women. We aimed to determine whether perception of poor sleep quality would have a different effect on mood outcome in men versus women. We assessed association between sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)) at study intake and mood outcome over 2 years in subjects from the Prechter Longitudinal Study of Bipolar Disorder (N=216; 29.6% males). The main outcome measure was the severity, variability, and frequency of mood episodes measured by self-report over 2 years of follow-up. Multivariable linear regression models stratified by sex examined the relationship between PSQI with mood outcomes, while age, stressful life events, mood state and neuroticism at baseline were controlled. In women, poor sleep quality at baseline predicted increased severity (B=0.28, p<0.001) and frequency of episodes (B=0.32, p<0.001) of depression, and poor sleep quality was a stronger predictor than baseline depression; poor sleep quality predicted increased severity (B=0.19, p<0.05) and variability (B=0.20, p<0.05) of mania, and frequency of mixed episodes (B=0.27, p<0.01). In men, baseline depression and neuroticism were stronger predictors of mood outcome compared to poor sleep quality. We measured perception of sleep quality, but not objective changes in sleep. In a longitudinal study of BD, women reported poorer perceived sleep quality than men, and poor sleep quality predicted worse mood outcome in BD. Clinicians should be sensitive to addressing sleep complaints in women with BD early in treatment to improve outcome in BD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Journal of Affective Disorders 04/2015; 180:90-96. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.03.048 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Gender differences in treatment that are not supported by empirical evidence have been reported in several areas of medicine. Here, the aim was to evaluate potential gender differences in the treatment for bipolar disorder. METHODS: Data was collected from the Swedish National Quality Assurance Register for bipolar disorder (BipoläR). Baseline registrations from the period 2004-2011 of 7354 patients were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to study the impact of gender on interventions. RESULTS: Women were more often treated with antidepressants, lamotrigine, electroconvulsive therapy, benzodiazepines, and psychotherapy. Men were more often treated with lithium. There were no gender differences in treatment with mood stabilizers as a group, neuroleptics, or valproate. Subgroup analyses revealed that ECT was more common in women only in the bipolar I subgroup. Contrariwise, lamotrigine was more common in women only in the bipolar II subgroup. LIMITATIONS: As BipoläR contains data on outpatient treatment of persons with bipolar disorder in Sweden, it is unclear if these findings translate to inpatient care and to outpatient treatment in other countries. CONCLUSIONS: Men and women with bipolar disorder receive different treatments in routine clinical settings in Sweden. Gender differences in level of functioning, bipolar subtype, or severity of bipolar disorder could not explain the higher prevalence of pharmacological treatment, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychotherapy in women. Our results suggest that clinicians׳ treatment decisions are to some extent unduly influenced by patients׳ gender.Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2014; 174C:303-309. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.11.058 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a widely accepted measure of illness state that is related to morbidity and mortality. Findings from various populations show that women report lower HRQOL than men. We analyzed baseline HRQOL data for gender differences from a multisite, randomized controlled study for adults with bipolar disorder. HRQOL was assessed using the 12-item Short Form (SF-12) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) health scales. Multivariate linear and bivariate regression models examined differences in self-reported data on demographics, depressive symptoms (nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire), bipolar disorder symptoms (Internal State Scale), and medical comorbidities. Out of 384 enrolled (mean age = 42 years), 256 were women (66.7 %). After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and clinical factors, women had lower SF-12 PCS scores than men [β = -1.78, standard error (SE) = 0.87, p < 0.05], indicating worse physical health, but there were no gender differences in MCS scores. After controlling for patient factors including medical and behavioral comorbidities, the association between gender and PCS score was no longer significant. Of the medical comorbidities, pain was associated with lower PCS scores (β = -4.90, SE = 0.86, p < 0.0001). Worse physical HRQOL experienced by women with bipolar disorder may be explained by medical comorbidity, particularly pain, suggesting the importance of gender-tailored interventions addressing physical health conditions.Archives of Women s Mental Health 04/2013; 21(4). DOI:10.1007/s00737-013-0351-1 · 1.96 Impact Factor