Gender and Depressive Symptoms in 711 Patients With Bipolar Disorder Evaluated Prospectively in the Stanley Foundation Bipolar Treatment Outcome Network
ABSTRACT The authors assessed gender differences in the proportion of clinical visits spent depressed, manic, or euthymic in patients with bipolar disorder.
Data were analyzed from 711 patients with bipolar I or II disorder who were followed prospectively over 7 years (13,191 visits). The main outcome measures were the presence of symptoms of depression or of hypomania or mania, measured by the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology and the Young Mania Rating Scale. Data were analyzed using three separate repeated-measures regressions with a logistic link function to model the probability that an individual was depressed, manic, or euthymic. The models controlled for bipolar I or bipolar II diagnosis, rapid cycling, age, time in the study, comorbid anxiety disorders, and comorbid substance use disorders.
In approximately half of visits, patients had depressive, manic, or hypomanic symptoms. The likelihood of having depressive symptoms was significantly greater for women than for men. This was accounted for by higher rates in women of rapid cycling and anxiety disorders, each of which was associated with increased rates of depression. All patient groups showed an increase in number of euthymic visits and a decrease in number of visits with depressive and manic symptoms with increased time in study.
Bipolar patients spend a substantial proportion of their time ill. Significant gender differences exist, with women spending a greater proportion of their visits in the depressive pole. This finding appears to be related to the corresponding differences in rates of rapid cycling and anxiety disorders.
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ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder is characterized by debilitating episodes of depression and mood elevation (mania or hypomania). For most patients, depressive symptoms are more pervasive than mood elevation or mixed symptoms, and thus have been reported in individual studies to impose a greater burden on affected individuals, caregivers, and society. This article reviews and compiles the literature on the prevalence and burden of syndromal as well as subsyndromal presentations of depression in bipolar disorder patients. The PubMed database was searched for English-language articles using the search terms "bipolar disorder," "bipolar depression," "burden," "caregiver burden," "cost," "costs," "economic," "epidemiology," "prevalence," "quality of life," and "suicide." Search results were manually reviewed, and relevant studies were selected for inclusion as appropriate. Additional references were obtained manually from reviewing the reference lists of selected articles found by computerized search. In aggregate, the findings support the predominance of depressive symptoms compared with mood elevation/mixed symptoms in the course of bipolar illness, and thus an overall greater burden in terms of economic costs, functioning, caregiver burden, and suicide. This review, although comprehensive, provides a study-wise aggregate (rather than a patient-wise meta-analytic) summary of the relevant literature on this topic. In light of its pervasiveness and prevalence, more effective and aggressive treatments for bipolar depression are warranted to mitigate its profound impact upon individuals and society. Such studies could benefit by including metrics not only for mood outcomes, but also for illness burden. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2014; 169S1:S3-S11. DOI:10.1016/S0165-0327(14)70003-5 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lurasidone is a benzisothiazol derivative second-generation antipsychotic. It has been approved in the United States and Europe for treatment of acute schizophrenia and bipolar depression. In type I bipolar subjects, treatment with lurasidone monotherapy of adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproic acid with doses of 20 to 120 mg once daily with food, results in statistically and clinically significant reduction of depressive symptoms. Patients experience relatively few side effects, which include somnolence, akathisia, nausea, and other gastrointestinal upset. Dopamine related side effects, such as Parkinsonism and elevated prolactin, are rare and mild. Longer term safety data obtained in 6 months long, open continuation observation periods, suggest that metabolic related elevations in weight, glucose, and lipids are absent or minimal. The mechanism of action of lurasidone is not known, but the data are compatible with antagonism of the serotonin 7 receptor. Lurasidone is a new option for the treatment of bipolar depression with relatively few side effects.Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 01/2015; 11:75-81. DOI:10.2147/TCRM.S57695 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sleep disturbance is bi-directionally related to mood de-stabilization in bipolar disorder (BD), and sleep quality differs in men and women. We aimed to determine whether perception of poor sleep quality would have a different effect on mood outcome in men versus women. We assessed association between sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)) at study intake and mood outcome over 2 years in subjects from the Prechter Longitudinal Study of Bipolar Disorder (N=216; 29.6% males). The main outcome measure was the severity, variability, and frequency of mood episodes measured by self-report over 2 years of follow-up. Multivariable linear regression models stratified by sex examined the relationship between PSQI with mood outcomes, while age, stressful life events, mood state and neuroticism at baseline were controlled. In women, poor sleep quality at baseline predicted increased severity (B=0.28, p<0.001) and frequency of episodes (B=0.32, p<0.001) of depression, and poor sleep quality was a stronger predictor than baseline depression; poor sleep quality predicted increased severity (B=0.19, p<0.05) and variability (B=0.20, p<0.05) of mania, and frequency of mixed episodes (B=0.27, p<0.01). In men, baseline depression and neuroticism were stronger predictors of mood outcome compared to poor sleep quality. We measured perception of sleep quality, but not objective changes in sleep. In a longitudinal study of BD, women reported poorer perceived sleep quality than men, and poor sleep quality predicted worse mood outcome in BD. Clinicians should be sensitive to addressing sleep complaints in women with BD early in treatment to improve outcome in BD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Journal of Affective Disorders 04/2015; 180:90-96. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.03.048 · 3.71 Impact Factor