Identification and characterization of mitochondrial targeting sequence of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1.
ABSTRACT Dually targeted mitochondrial proteins usually possess an unconventional mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS), which makes them difficult to predict by current bioinformatics approaches. Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) plays a central role in the cellular response to oxidative stress. It is a dually targeted protein preferentially residing in the nucleus with conditional distribution in the mitochondria. However, the mitochondrial translocation mechanism of APE1 is not well characterized because it harbors an unconventional MTS that is difficult to predict by bioinformatics analysis. Two experimental approaches were combined in this study to identify the MTS of APE1. First, the interactions between the peptides from APE1 and the three purified translocase receptors of the outer mitochondrial membrane (Tom) were evaluated using a peptide array screen. Consequently, the intracellular distribution of green fluorescent protein-tagged, truncated, or mutated APE1 proteins was traced by tag detection. The results demonstrated that the only MTS of APE1 is harbored within residues 289-318 in the C terminus, which is normally masked by the intact N-terminal structure. As a dually targeted mitochondrial protein, APE1 possesses a special distribution pattern of different subcellular targeting signals, the identification of which sheds light on future prediction of MTSs.
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ABSTRACT: Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1) protects cells from oxidative stress via the base excision repair pathway and as a redox transcriptional coactivator. It is required for tumor progression/metastasis, and its up-regulation is associated with cancer resistance. Loss of APE1 expression causes cell growth arrest, mitochondrial impairment, apoptosis, and alterations of the intracellular redox state and cytoskeletal structure. A detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms regulating its different activities is required to understand the APE1 function associated with cancer development and for targeting this protein in cancer therapy. To dissect these activities, we performed reconstitution experiments by using wild-type and various APE1 mutants. Our results suggest that the redox function is responsible for cell proliferation through the involvement of Cys-65 in mediating APE1 localization within mitochondria. C65S behaves as a loss-of-function mutation by affecting the in vivo folding of the protein and by causing a reduced accumulation in the intermembrane space of mitochondria, where the import protein Mia40 specifically interacts with APE1. Treatment of cells with (E)-3-(2-[5,6-dimethoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinonyl])-2-nonyl propenoic acid, a specific inhibitor of APE1 redox function through increased Cys-65 oxidation, confirm that Cys-65 controls APE1 subcellular trafficking and provides the basis for a new role for this residue.Molecular biology of the cell 08/2011; 22(20):3887-901. · 5.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), which represents a major type of DNA damage induced by ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation, is a principal cause of UVB-induced growth inhibition in plants. CPD photolyase is the primary enzyme for repairing CPDs and is crucial for determining the sensitivity of rice to UVB radiation. CPD photolyase is widely distributed among species ranging from eubacteria to eukaryotes and is classified into class I or II based on its primary structure. We previously demonstrated that rice CPD photolyase (OsPHR), which belongs to class II and is encoded by a single-copy gene, is a unique nuclear/mitochondrial/chloroplast triple-targeting protein. However, the location and nature of the organellar targeting information contained within OsPHR are unknown. Here, the nuclear and mitochondrial targeting signal sequences of OsPHR were identified by systematic deletion analysis. The nuclear and mitochondrial targeting sequences are harbored within residues 487-489 and 391-401 in the C-terminal region of OsPHR (506 amino acid residues), respectively. The mitochondrial targeting signal represents a distinct topogenic sequence that differs structurally and functionally from classical N-terminal presequences, and this region, in addition to its role in localization to the mitochondria, is essential for the proper functioning of the CPD photolyase. Furthermore, the mitochondrial targeting sequence, which is characteristic of class II CPD photolyases, was acquired before the divergence of class II CPD photolyases in eukaryotes. These results indicate that rice plants have evolved a CPD photolyase that functions in mitochondria to protect cells from the harmful effects of UVB radiation.The Plant Journal 06/2014; · 6.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The large-conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) channel (BKCa, MaxiK), which is encoded by the Kcnma1 gene, is generally expressed at the plasma membrane of excitable and nonexcitable cells. However, in adult cardiomyocytes, a BKCa-like channel activity has been reported in the mitochondria but not at the plasma membrane. The putative opening of this channel with the BKCa agonist, NS1619, protects the heart from ischemic insult. However, the molecular origin of mitochondrial BKCa (mitoBKCa) is unknown because its linkage to Kcnma1 has been questioned on biochemical and molecular grounds. Here, we unequivocally demonstrate that the molecular correlate of mitoBKCa is the Kcnma1 gene, which produces a protein that migrates at ∼140 kDa and arranges in clusters of ∼50 nm in purified mitochondria. Physiological experiments further support the origin of mitoBKCa as a Kcnma1 product because NS1619-mediated cardioprotection was absent in Kcnma1 knockout mice. Finally, BKCa transcript analysis and expression in adult cardiomyocytes led to the discovery of a 50-aa C-terminal splice insert as essential for the mitochondrial targeting of mitoBKCa.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor