Identification and characterization of mitochondrial targeting sequence of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1.
ABSTRACT Dually targeted mitochondrial proteins usually possess an unconventional mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS), which makes them difficult to predict by current bioinformatics approaches. Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) plays a central role in the cellular response to oxidative stress. It is a dually targeted protein preferentially residing in the nucleus with conditional distribution in the mitochondria. However, the mitochondrial translocation mechanism of APE1 is not well characterized because it harbors an unconventional MTS that is difficult to predict by bioinformatics analysis. Two experimental approaches were combined in this study to identify the MTS of APE1. First, the interactions between the peptides from APE1 and the three purified translocase receptors of the outer mitochondrial membrane (Tom) were evaluated using a peptide array screen. Consequently, the intracellular distribution of green fluorescent protein-tagged, truncated, or mutated APE1 proteins was traced by tag detection. The results demonstrated that the only MTS of APE1 is harbored within residues 289-318 in the C terminus, which is normally masked by the intact N-terminal structure. As a dually targeted mitochondrial protein, APE1 possesses a special distribution pattern of different subcellular targeting signals, the identification of which sheds light on future prediction of MTSs.
- SourceAvailable from: Mark Kelley[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The DNA base excision-repair pathway is responsible for the repair of DNA damage caused by oxidation/alkylation and protects cells against the effects of endogenous and exogenous agents. Removal of the damaged base creates a baseless (AP) site. AP endonuclease1 (Ape1) acts on this site to continue the BER-pathway repair. Failure to repair baseless sites leads to DNA strand breaks and cytotoxicity. In addition to the repair role of Ape1, it also functions as a major redox-signaling factor to reduce and activate transcription factors such as AP1, p53, HIF-1alpha, and others that control the expression of genes important for cell survival and cancer promotion and progression. Thus, the Ape1 protein interacts with proteins involved in DNA repair, growth-signaling pathways, and pathways involved in tumor promotion and progression. Although knockdown studies with siRNA have been informative in studying the role of Ape1 in both normal and cancer cells, knocking down Ape1 does not reveal the individual role of the redox or repair functions of Ape1. The identification of small-molecule inhibitors of specific Ape1 functions is critical for mechanistic studies and translational applications. Here we discuss small-molecule inhibition of Ape1 redox and its effect on both cancer and endothelial cells.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 11/2008; 10(11):1853-67. · 8.20 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: C-tail-anchored (C-TA) proteins are anchored to specific organelle membranes by a single transmembrane segment (TMS) at the C-terminus, extruding the N-terminal functional domains into the cytoplasm in which the TMS and following basic segment function as the membrane-targeting signals. Here, we analyzed the import route of mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) C-TA proteins, Bak, Bcl-XL, and Omp25, using digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells, which provide specific and efficient import under competitive conditions. These experiments revealed that (i) C-TA proteins were imported to the MOM through a common pathway independent of the components of the preprotein translocase of the outer membrane, (ii) the C-TA protein-targeting signal functioned autonomously in the absence of cytoplasmic factors that specifically recognize the targeting signals and deliver the preproteins to the MOM, (iii) the function of a cytoplasmic chaperone was required if the cytoplasmic domains of the C-TA proteins assumed an import-incompetent conformation, and intriguingly, (iv) the MOM-targeting signal of Bak, in the context of the Bak molecule, required activation by the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with VDAC2 before MOM targeting.The EMBO Journal 01/2007; 25(24):5635-47. · 9.82 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In human cells APE1 is the major AP endonuclease and it has been reported to have no functional mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS). We found that APE2 protein possesses a putative MTS. When its N-terminal 15 amino acid residues were fused to the N-terminus of green fluorescent protein and transiently expressed in HeLa cells the fusion protein was localized in the mitochondria. By electron microscopic immunocytochemistry we detected authentic APE2 protein in mitochondria from HeLa cells. Western blotting of the subcellular fraction of HeLa cells revealed most of the APE2 protein to be localized in the nuclei. We found a putative proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-binding motif in the C-terminal region of APE2 and showed this motif to be functional by immunoprecipitation and in vitro pull-down binding assays. Laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy of HeLa cells demonstrated both APE2 and PCNA to form foci in the nucleus and also to be co-localized in some of the foci. The incubation of HeLa cells in HAT medium containing deoxyuridine significantly increased the number of foci in which both molecules were co-localized. Our results suggest that APE2 participates in both nuclear and mitochondrial BER and also that nuclear APE2 functions in the PCNA-dependent BER pathway.Nucleic Acids Research 07/2001; 29(11):2349-60. · 8.28 Impact Factor