Catheter duration and risk of CLA-BSI in neonates with PICCs
ABSTRACT To determine whether the risk of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLA-BSIs) remained constant over the duration of peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) in high-risk neonates.
We performed a retrospective cohort study of NICU patients who had a PICC inserted between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2008. A Poisson regression model with linear spline terms to model time since PICC insertion was used to evaluate potential changes in the risk of CLA-BSI while adjusting for other variables.
Six hundred eighty-three neonates were eligible for analysis. There were 21 CLA-BSIs within a follow-up period of 10 470 catheter-days. The incidence of PICC-associated CLA-BSI was 2.01 per 1 000 catheter-days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-3.06). The incidence rate of CLA-BSIs increased by 14% per day during the first 18 days after PICC insertion (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 1.14 [95% CI: 1.04-1.25]). From days 19 through 35 after PICC insertion, the trend reversed (IRR: 0.8 [95% CI: 0.66-0.96]). From days 36 through 60 after PICC insertion, the incidence rate of CLA-BSI again increased by 33% per day (IRR: 1.33 [95% CI: 1.12-1.57]). There was no statistically significant association between the risk of CLA-BSI and gestational age groups, birth weight groups, or chronological age groups.
Our data suggest that catheter duration is an important risk factor for PICC-associated CLA-BSI in the NICU. A significant daily increase in the risk of CLA-BSI after 35 days may warrant PICC replacement if intravascular access is necessary beyond that period.
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ABSTRACT: In this paper, the authors present a result of a full-scale earth fault test carried out on the 10 kV research/laboratory distribution network at Kyndbyvaerket Denmark in May 2001. The network is compensated through a Petersen-Coil and current and voltage measurements were measured on conventional current transformers (CTs) and voltage transformers (VTs) by an optical link. Comparison with a similar earlier performed experiment carried out autumn 1998, where current and voltage measurements were measured with high bandwidth Rogowski coils and high voltage Tektronix probes, gave remarkable results. The necessity of high bandwidth measurement equipment for earth fault measurements on compensated distribution networks can be undermined, since it will be shown that the transient signal transfer through conventional CTs and VTs for further signal analysis is sufficient. Caused by the inadequacy three phase conductor cable models in PSCDAD/EMTDC<sup>®</sup> V3, the simulations of the whole laboratory network shows more or less good identity with the measurements.Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, 2002 IEEE; 08/2002
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ABSTRACT: To compare the complication rates of femoral versus nonfemoral sites of percutaneously inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) in very low birth weight infants. Between 2004 and 2006, 518 PICCs inserted in 334 neonates with a birth body weight>or=1500 g were studied. 278 catheters were inserted at nonfemoral sites, and 240 catheters at a femoral site. All catheter-related complications were recorded and analyzed. The infants with femoral PICCs had a significantly higher rate of catheter-related sepsis (CRS) than those with nonfemoral PICCs (22.5% vs. 12.2%, P=0.002) and the incidence rate was also significantly higher (10.9 vs. 6.8 episodes per 1000 catheter days, P=0.012). The infants with nonfemoral PICCs had significantly higher rates of phlebitis, catheter site inflammation, and need for early removal than those with femoral PICCs. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the significant contributors to CRS were duration of the PICC placement (P<0.001) and insertion of the PICC at a femoral site (P=0.010). Because of a higher rate of CRS, the femoral site should not be considered for the placement of PICCs in VLBW infants, when possible.The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 09/2009; 28(11):966-70. DOI:10.1097/INF.0b013e3181aa3a29
- PEDIATRICS 03/2010; 125(4):820-1. DOI:10.1542/peds.2010-0233