Pollution control technologies for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) through end-of-pipe processes.

Chemical and Sustainable Process Engineering Research Group, School of Engineering, Monash University, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, 46150, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. wu.ta.yeong@eng
Journal of Environmental Management (Impact Factor: 3.06). 03/2010; 91(7):1467-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.02.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Palm oil production is one of the major industries in Malaysia and this country ranks one of the largest productions in the world. In Malaysia, the total production of crude palm oil in 2008 was 17,734,441 tonnes. However, the production of this amount of crude palm oil results in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the year 2008 alone, at least 44 million tonnes of POME was generated in Malaysia. Currently, the ponding system is the most common treatment method for POME but other processes such as aerobic and anaerobic digestion, physicochemical treatment and membrane filtration may also provide the palm oil industries with possible insights into the improvement of POME treatment processes. Generally, open ponding offers low capital and operating costs but this conventional method is becoming less attractive because the methane produced is wasted to the atmosphere and the system can not be certified for Carbon Emission Reduction trading. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion of POME provides the fastest payback of investment because the treatment enables biogas recovery for heat generation and treated effluent for land application. Lastly, it is proposed herewith that wastewater management based on the promotion of cleaner production and environmentally sound biotechnologies should be prioritized and included as a part of the POME management in Malaysia for attaining sustainable development. This paper thus discusses and compares state-of-the-art POME treatment methods as well as their individual performances.

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    ABSTRACT: This study explored co-cultivation of Nannochloropsis oculata microalgae with oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) for anaerobic biomethane production and palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment. The highest specific biogas production rate (1.13–1.14 m3 kg−1 COD d−1) and methane yield (4606–5018 mL CH4 L−1 POME d−1) were achieved with co-cultivation of N. oculata (2 mL/mL POME) and OPEFB (0.12 g/mL POME), as similarly predicted by response surface methodology for optimum conditions. Without microalgae and OPEFB co-cultivation, the biomethane yield was 1.3-fold lower, although the specific biogas production rate remained constant at 1.13–1.16 m3 kg−1 COD d−1. Aerobic and anaerobic treatment of POME after 7 d with microalgae achieved higher removal efficiency of COD (90–97%), BOD (84–98%) and TOC (65–80%) as compared to without microalgae with COD (58–68%), BOD (77–86%) and TOC (58–68%).
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    ABSTRACT: The performance of the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor that used red mud-iron (RM-Fe) for methane production for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) at various hydraulic retention time (HRT) was determined. POME was used as the substrate carbon source. The biogas production rate was 1.7 l biogas/h with a methane yield of 0.78 l CH4/g CODremoved and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 85% at POME concentration of 30 g COD/l at HRT 16 h. The reactor R2 showed average methane content of biogas and COD reduction of 78% and 85% at 400 mg/l RM-Fe. Significant increase in the granule diameter (up to 2900 μm) in R2 was compared to control R1 (up to 86 μm) at end of the experiment.
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    ABSTRACT: makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the "Content") contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis, our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arising out of the use of the Content. This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at The performance of raw Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn (raw kapok fibers (RKF)) for oil sorption and palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment was compared with structurally modified kapok (NaOH-treated (SKF) and surface-modified kapok fiber (SMKF)) and bentonite clay. Based on FTIR, kapok wax functional group at 1726/cm was not detected in SKF rendering higher hydrophilicity. The reduction in peak intensity at 473 and 523/cm upon HCl treat-ment of bentonite, suggests the cleavage of Si–O–Al bond layer and Si–O–Mg (Fe) bonds. For filtration under gravity at 0.08 g/cm 3 , SKF showed high POME sorption of 82 g/g, but lower diesel sorption of 23 g/g. With HCl-treated bentonite, POME sorption at 69 g/g was only slightly higher than diesel sorption of 60 g/g. However, RKF and raw bentonite achieved higher removal efficiency of biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon, and total nitrogen at 74–98% and 72–94%, respectively, than with SKF at 66–80%, and HCl-treated bentonite at 64–80%. In batch mode, SMKF at 0.08 g/ cm 3 showed the highest oil sorption capacity of 56.7 g/g for Crude Palm Oil (CPO) and 33.7 g/g for diesel. Under continuous mode with 4000 mg/l CPO in water, 99% of COD removal was achieved at all packing densities and flow rates, regardless of kapok packing material. The dynamic oil retention was 96–99% for CPO and 99–100% for diesel at all pack-ing densities. RKF and SMKF can both be suitable sorbent materials for CPO and diesel sorption, and for POME treatment.
    Desalination and water treatment 03/2014; 10.1080/19443994.2014.906326. · 0.85 Impact Factor

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