Salmonella is one of the leading causes of human foodborne illness and is associated with swine production. Bacteriophages are naturally occurring viruses that prey on bacteria and have been suggested as a potential intervention strategy to reduce Salmonella levels in food animals on the farm and in the lairage period. If phages are to be used to improve food safety, then we must understand the incidence and natural ecology of both phages and their hosts in the intestinal environment. This study investigates the incidence of phages that are active against Salmonella spp. in the feces of commercial finishing swine. Fecal samples (n = 60) were collected from each of 10 commercial swine finishing operations. Samples were collected from 10 randomly selected pens throughout each operation; a total of 600 fecal samples were collected. Salmonella spp. were found in 7.3% (44/600) of the fecal samples. Bacteriophages were isolated from fecal samples through two parallel methods: (1) initial enrichment in Salmonella Typhimurium; (2) initial enrichment in Escherichia coli B (an indicator strain), followed by direct spot testing against Salmonella Typhimurium. Bacteriophages active against Salmonella Typhimurium were isolated from 1% (6/600) of the individual fecal samples when initially enriched in Salmonella Typhimurium, but E. coli B-killing phages were isolated from 48.3% (290/600) of the fecal samples and only two of these phages infected Salmonella Typhimurium on secondary plating. Collectively, our results indicate that bacteriophages are widespread in commercial swine, but those capable of killing Salmonella Typhimurium may be present at relatively low population levels. These results indicate that phages (predator) populations may vary along with Salmonella (prey) populations; and that phages could potentially be used as a food safety pathogen reduction strategy in swine.
"However, while a large body of data exists on the Salmonella serovar diversity associated with human and animal disease (e.g., CDC Salmonella Annual Summary and WHO Global Salm-Surv (Galanis et al., 2006; CDC, 2009)), our understanding of Salmonella phage diversity and the role of phages in the ecology and serovar diversity of Salmonella is still limited. Some studies have though shown considerable diversity among Salmonella phages isolated from swine effluent lagoons, human sewage, and swine and poultry feces (Andreatti Filho et al., 2007; Callaway et al., 2010; McLaughlin et al., 2006). One study reported isolation of phages representing different phage families and numerous different host ranges from 26 samples collected from 26 different sites (e.g., broiler farms, abattoirs, and waste water plants) in southern England (Atterbury et al., 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella is an animal and human pathogen of worldwide concern. Surveillance programs indicate that the incidence of Salmonella serovars fluctuates over time. While bacteriophages are likely to play a role in driving microbial diversity, our understanding of the ecology and diversity of Salmonella phages is limited. Here we report the isolation of Salmonella phages from manure samples from 13 dairy farms with a history of Salmonella presence. Salmonella phages were isolated from 10 of the 13 farms; overall 108 phage isolates were obtained on serovar Newport, Typhimurium, Dublin, Kentucky, Anatum, Mbandaka, and Cerro hosts. Host range characterization found that 51% of phage isolates had a narrow host range, while 49% showed a broad host range. The phage isolates represented 65 lysis profiles; genome size profiling of 94 phage isolates allowed for classification of phage isolates into 11 groups with subsequent restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showing considerable variation within a given group. Our data not only show an abundance of diverse Salmonella phage isolates in dairy farms, but also show that phage isolates that lyse the most common serovars causing salmonellosis in cattle are frequently obtained, suggesting that phages may play an important role in the ecology of Salmonella on dairy farms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary form only given. It has been reported that a high-pressure, high-power-density sulfur discharge converted 50% of the applied microwave energy to visible light with a color rendering index of over 85. Recent advances in this technology are reviewed. Power densities in excess of 4000 watts/cc of bulb volume have been achieved, and coupled power levels up to 6000 watts of microwave power have been demonstrated. Efficacy has been investigated as a function of discharge size. A method for altering the angular distribution of the light intensity which involves reabsorption of "unwanted" light and the subsequent reradiation in a more favorable direction is examined. A model has been developed to explain the observations
IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science 01/1993; DOI:10.1109/PLASMA.1993.593595
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria are foodborne pathogens of critical importance that often colonize cattle. E. coli O157:H7 can be specifically killed by lytic bacteriophage, and lytic bacteriophage treatment has been suggested as a pre-harvest intervention strategy to reduce foodborne pathogens in cattle. To date, no systematic approach to determine the incidence of E. coli O157:H7-infecting lytic bacteriophage has been published. Therefore, the current study was designed to determine (1) the incidence of E. coli O157, Salmonella spp., and Listeria and (2) the incidence of E. coli O157:H7-infecting bacteriophage in the feces of feedlot steers in commercial feedlots in the United States. Fecal samples (n=60) were collected from four feedlots in two Southern Great Plains states (total (n=240 fecal samples). Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 were found in 3.8% and 11.7% of the fecal samples, respectively. Bacteriophage targeting E. coli O157:H7 were found in all four feedlots, in 15% of the individual fecal samples, and in 55% of the cattle pens. Our results indicate that such bacteriophage are widespread in feedlot cattle, suggesting that further research into the ecological role of bacteriophage in the gastrointestinal tract is needed.
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