Brain Activation While Thinking About the Self From Another Person's Perspective After Traumatic Brain Injury in Adolescents

Newsome, Baylor College of Medicine, Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, 1709 Dryden Road, Suite 725, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Neuropsychology (Impact Factor: 3.43). 03/2010; 24(2):139-47. DOI: 10.1037/a0017432
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Deficits in self awareness and taking the perspective of others are often observed following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Nine adolescents (ages 12-19 years) who had sustained moderate to severe TBI after an average interval of 2.6 years and nine typically developing (TD) adolescents underwent functional MRI (fMRI) while performing a perspective taking task (D'Argembeau et al., 2007). Participants made trait attributions either from their own perspective or from that of the significant other. The groups did not differ in reaction time or on a consistency criterion. When thinking of the self from a third-person perspective, adolescents with TBI demonstrated greater activation in posterior brain regions implicated in social cognition, the left lingual gyrus (BA 18) and posterior cingulate (BA 31), extending into neighboring regions not generally associated with social cognition, that is, cuneus (BA 31) and parahippocampal gyrus, relative to TD adolescents. We postulate that adolescents with moderate to severe TBI recruited alternative neural pathways during perspective-taking because traumatic axonal injury disrupted their fronto-parietal networks mediating social cognition.

Download full-text


Available from: Lori G. Cook, Jul 04, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clinical reports and case studies suggest that traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have significant social consequences, with social dysfunction reported to be the most debilitating problem for child and adolescent survivors. From a social neuroscience perspective, evidence suggests that social skills are not localized to a specific brain region, but are mediated by an integrated neural network. Many components of this network are susceptible to disruption in the context of TBI. In early development, a brain injury can disrupt this neural network while it is in the process of being established, resulting in social dysfunction. In order to clarify the prevalence and nature of social dysfunction after child TBI, studies of social outcomes in children and adolescents after TBI over the last 23 years have been reviewed. Despite casting a wide net initially, only 28 articles met review criteria. These studies were characterized by methodological weaknesses, including variations in definitions of TBI, limited assessment tools, reliance on parent reports, small sample sizes, and absent control groups. Despite these limitations, the weight of evidence confirmed an elevated risk of social impairment in the context of moderate and severe injury. While rarely examined, younger age at insult, pathology to frontal regions and the corpus callosum, and social disadvantage and family dysfunction may also increase the likelihood of social difficulties. More research is needed to obtain an accurate picture of social outcomes post-brain injury.
    Journal of neurotrauma 01/2012; 29(7):1277-91. DOI:10.1089/neu.2011.2144 · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alterations in cerebrovascular function are evident acutely in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), although less is known about their chronic effects. Adolescent and adult patients with moderate to severe TBI have been reported to demonstrate diffuse activation throughout the brain during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Because fMRI is a measure related to blood flow, it is possible that any deficits in blood flow may alter activation. An arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion sequence was performed on seven adolescents with chronic moderate to severe TBI and seven typically developing (TD) adolescents during the same session in which they had performed a social cognition task during fMRI. In the TD group, prefrontal CBF was positively related to prefrontal activation and negatively related to non-prefrontal, posterior, brain activation. This relationship was not seen in the TBI group, who demonstrated a greater positive relationship between prefrontal CBF and non-prefrontal activation than the TD group. An analysis of CBF data independent of fMRI showed reduced CBF in the right non-prefrontal region (p<.055) in the TBI group. To understand any role reduced CBF may play in diffuse extra-activation, we then related the right non-prefrontal CBF to activation. CBF in the right non-prefrontal region in the TD group was positively associated with prefrontal activation, suggesting an interactive role of non-prefrontal and prefrontal blood flow throughout the right hemisphere in healthy brains. However, the TBI group demonstrated a positive association with activation constrained to the right non-prefrontal region. These data suggest a relationship between impaired non-prefrontal CBF and the presence of non-prefrontal extra-activation, where the region with more limited blood flow is associated with activation limited to that region. In a secondary analysis, pathology associated with hyperintensities on T2-weighted FLAIR imaging over the whole brain was related to whole brain activation, revealing a negative relationship between lesion volume and frontal activation, and a positive relationship between lesion volume and posterior activation. These preliminary data, albeit collected with small sample sizes, suggest that reduced non-prefrontal CBF, and possibly pathological tissue associated with T2-hyperintensities, may provide contributions to the diffuse, primarily posterior extra-activation observed in adolescents following moderate to severe TBI.
    International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 11/2011; 30(3):255-66. DOI:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2011.10.008 · 2.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper informs about the development of the microGPSS system on the basis of feed-back from some 5000 students during a period of two decades, providing a stream-lined simulation system which within ten class room hours of teaching make students prepared to write fairly advanced simulation programs of practical interest.