Intake of fiber and nuts during adolescence and incidence of proliferative benign breast disease
ABSTRACT We examined the association between adolescent fiber intake and proliferative BBD, a marker of increased breast cancer risk, in the Nurses' Health Study II.
Among 29,480 women who completed a high school diet questionnaire in 1998, 682 proliferative BBD cases were identified and confirmed by centralized pathology review between 1991 and 2001. Multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Women in the highest quintile of adolescent fiber intake had a 25% lower risk of proliferative BBD (multivariate HR (95% CI): 0.75 (0.59, 0.96), p-trend = 0.01) than women in the lowest quintile. High school intake of nuts was also related to significantly reduced BBD risk. Women consuming >or=2 servings of nuts/week had a 36% lower risk (multivariate HR (95% CI): 0.64 (0.48, 0.85), p-trend < 0.01) than women consuming <1 serving/month. Results were essentially the same when the analysis was restricted to prospective cases (n = 142) diagnosed after return of the high school diet questionnaire.
These findings support the hypothesis that dietary intake of fiber and nuts during adolescence influences subsequent risk of breast disease and may suggest a viable means for breast cancer prevention.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Graham A Colditz, May 30, 2015
Article: Cancer Chemoprevention With Nuts[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It is well established that increased nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of major chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, the association between nut consumption and cancer mortality is less clear. Recent studies have suggested that nut consumption is associated with reduced cancer mortality. This evidence reinforces the interest to investigate the chemopreventive properties of nuts, and it raises questions about the specific cancer type(s) and setting that can be more affected by nut consumption, as well as the cellular mechanisms involved in this protective effect. Here we discuss recent studies on the association of nut consumption and cancer, and we propose specific cellular mechanisms by which nut components can affect cancer progression.JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 09/2014; 106(9). DOI:10.1093/jnci/dju238 · 15.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Benign breast disease (BBD) is a broad category of diagnoses reported to convey a variable degree of increased risk of developing breast cancer. A meta-analysis of the existing literature was performed to quantify the risk estimate associated with BBD. Pubmed, Google Scholar, and EMBASE databases were searched in January 2011. English retrospective and prospective observational studies published from 1972 to 2010 evaluating BBD and the risk of breast cancer were included with data acquisition reported from 1930 to 2007. Eligibility was performed independently following a standardized protocol for full-text publication review by a single reviewer and reviewed by a second author. Of the 3,409 articles retrieved from the literature search, 32 studies met the selection criteria. Reported risk estimates, including relative risk, odds ratio, standardized incidence ratios, rate ratio, hazards ratio, and incidence rate ratio, were the primary outcomes extracted. The most commonly reported pathologies were decided prior to extraction and organized into the following categories for analysis of the extracted risk estimate: non-proliferative disease (NPD), proliferative disease without atypia, benign breast disease not otherwise specified (BBD), and atypical hyperplasia not otherwise specified (AHNOS). The mean age at benign breast biopsy was 46.1 years and the mean age of developing breast cancer was 55.9 years. The mean follow-up length was 12.8 years (range 3.3-20.6). The summary risk estimate of developing breast cancer for NPD was 1.17 (N = 8; 95 % CI 0.94-1.47). Proliferative disease without atypia was associated with significantly increased risk of future breast cancer, summary relative risk 1.76 (N = 15; 95 % CI 1.58-1.95). The summary risk estimate for AHNOS was 3.93 (N = 13; 95 % CI 3.24-4.76). This meta-analysis demonstrates that proliferative benign breast disease with or without atypia is associated with a significant increase in risk of developing breast cancer. These data support management strategies for women with benign breast disease such as additional screening methods or chemoprevention.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 01/2015; 149(3). DOI:10.1007/s10549-014-3254-6 · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dietary exposures during adolescence may exert important effects on breast development and future breast cancer risk. This study evaluated the associations between high school intakes of fat and micronutrients and the incidence of proliferative benign breast disease (BBD), a marker of increased breast cancer risk.Cancer Causes and Control 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10552-014-0484-1 · 2.96 Impact Factor