Although skin contains a number of stem cell repositories, their characterization has been hindered by a lack of specific markers and an unclear in vivo localization. In this study, we whole mounted single human scalp hair follicles and examined their profiles using in situ immunohistochemistry and multicolor immunofluorescence in search of markers to distinguish between stem cells residing in the interfollicular epidermis (IFE) and bulge. Our study revealed that expression of several biomarkers localized uniquely to the basal IFE (CD34 and CD117), bulge region (CD200), or both (CK15, CD49f, and CD29). In addition, we found that both basal IFE and bulge stem cells did not express CD71 or CD24 suggesting their potential utility as negative selection markers. Dermal papilla but not basal IFE or bulge stem cells expressed CD90, making it a potential positive selection marker for dermal hair follicle stem cells. The markers tested in this study may enable pursuit of cell sorting and purification strategies aimed at determining each stem cell population's unique molecular signature.
"The authors also demonstrated the presence of skirt-like projections in small vellus hair but not in large vellus hairs. The APM-bulge connection persists throughout the hair growth cycle and has been suggested to play an important role in morphogenesis and renewal of hair follicles. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The arrector pili muscle (APM) consists of a small band of smooth muscle that connects the hair follicle to the connective tissue of the basement membrane. The APM mediates thermoregulation by contracting to increase air-trapping, but was thought to be vestigial in humans. The APM attaches proximally to the hair follicle at the bulge, a known stem cell niche. Recent studies have been directed toward this muscle's possible role in maintaining the follicular integrity and stability. This review summarizes APM anatomy and physiology and then discusses the relationship between the follicular unit and the APM. The potential role of the APM in hair loss disorders is also described, and a model explaining APM changes in hair loss is proposed.
International Journal of Trichology 07/2014; 6(3):88-94. DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.139077
"In agreement with previous studies , , we also found that ALDHhigh HEp3 cells displayed slightly higher levels of surface CD44 when compared to ALDHlow HEp3 cells (1.3 folds higher, 1793±345 vs. 1331±233, p = 0.0026) (Fig. S1B). ALDHhigh HEp3 cells were negative or showed no difference from the ALDHlow counterpart for other defined markers such as CD71 (6354±979 vs. 5307±1217, p = 0.52) (Fig. S1C), CD34 , , CD200  and CD133  (data not shown). We conclude that HNSCC HEp3 tumors contain a sub-population of ALDHhigh/CD49fhigh cells. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC) tumors carry dismal long-term prognosis and the role of tumor initiating cells (TICs) in this cancer is unclear. We investigated in HNSCC xenografts whether specific tumor subpopulations contributed to tumor growth. We used a CFSE-based label retentions assay, CD49f (α6-integrin) surface levels and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity to profile HNSCC subpopulations. The tumorigenic potential of marker-positive and -negative subpopulations was tested in nude (Balb/c nu/nu) and NSG (NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid) Il2rg(tm1Wjl)/SzJ) mice and chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. Here we identified in HEp3, SQ20b and FaDu HNSCC xenografts a subpopulation of G0/G1-arrested slow-cycling CD49f(high)/ALDH1A1(high)/H3K4/K27me3(low) subpopulation (CD49f+) of tumor cells. A strikingly similar CD49f(high)/H3K27me3(low) subpopulation is also present in primary human HNSCC tumors and metastases. While only sorted CD49f(high)/ALDH(high), label retaining cells (LRC) proliferated immediately in vivo, with time the CD49f(low)/ALDH(low), non-LRC (NLRC) tumor cell subpopulations were also able to regain tumorigenic capacity; this was linked to restoration of CD49f(high)/ALDH(high), label retaining cells. In addition, CD49f is required for HEp3 cell tumorigenicity and to maintain low levels of H3K4/K27me3. CD49f+ cells also displayed reduced expression of the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EZH2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. This suggests that although transiently quiescent, their unique chromatin structure is poised for rapid transcriptional activation. CD49f- cells can "reprogram" and also achieve this state eventually. We propose that in HNSCC tumors, epigenetic mechanisms likely driven by CD49f signaling dynamically regulate HNSCC xenograft phenotypic heterogeneity. This allows multiple tumor cell subpopulations to drive tumor growth suggesting that their dynamic nature renders them a "moving target" and their eradication might require more persistent strategies.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e29974. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0029974 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review summarizes recent advances in histochemistry and cell biology which complement and extend our knowledge regarding various aspects of protein functions, cell and tissue biology, employing appropriate in vivo model systems in conjunction with established and novel approaches. In this context several non-expected results and discoveries were obtained which paved the way of research into new directions. Once the reader embarks on reading this review, it quickly becomes quite obvious that the studies contribute not only to a better understanding of fundamental biological processes but also provide use-oriented aspects that can be derived therefrom.
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