Prophylactic intravenous magnesium sulfate for treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical study

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany.
Critical care medicine (Impact Factor: 6.15). 03/2010; 38(5):1284-90. DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181d9da1e
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To examine whether the maintenance of elevated magnesium serum concentrations by intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate can reduce the occurrence of cerebral ischemic events after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study.
Neurosurgical intensive care unit of a University hospital.
One hundred ten patients were randomized to receive intravenous magnesium sulfate or to serve as controls. Magnesium treatment was started with a bolus of 16 mmol, followed by continuous infusion of 8 mmol/hr. Serum concentrations were measured every 8 hrs, and infusion rates were adjusted to maintain target levels of 2.0-2.5 mmol/L. Intravenous administration was continued for 10 days or until signs of vasospasm had resolved. Thereafter, magnesium was administered orally and tapered over 12 days.
Delayed ischemic infarction (primary end point) was assessed by analyzing serial computed tomography scans. Transcranial Doppler sonography and digital subtraction angiography were used to detect vasospasm. Delayed ischemic neurologic deficit was determined by continuous detailed neurologic examinations; clinical outcome after 6 months was assessed using the Glasgow outcome scale. Good outcome was defined as Glasgow outcome scale score 4 and 5.The incidence of delayed ischemic infarction was significantly lower in magnesium-treated patients (22% vs. 51%; p = .002); 34 of 54 magnesium patients and 27 of 53 control patients reached good outcome (p = .209). Delayed ischemic neurologic deficit was nonsignificantly reduced (9 of 54 vs. 15 of 53 patients; p = .149) and transcranial Doppler-detected/angiographic vasospasm was significantly reduced in the magnesium group (36 of 54 vs. 45 of 53 patients; p = .028). Fewer patients with signs of vasospasm had delayed cerebral infarction.
These data indicate that high-dose intravenous magnesium can reduce cerebral ischemic events after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage by attenuating vasospasm and increasing the ischemic tolerance during critical hypoperfusion.

Download full-text


Available from: Mirko Pham, Jul 05, 2015
1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is characterized by bleeding into the subarachnoid space, often caused by ruptured aneurysm. Aneurysmal rupture occurs in 700,000 individuals per year worldwide, with 40,000 cases taking place in the United States. Beyond the high mortality associated with SAH alone, morbidity and mortality are further increased with the occurrence of cerebral vasospasm, a pathologic constriction of blood vessels that can lead to delayed ischemic neurologic deficits (DIND). Treatment of cerebral vasospasm is a source of contention. One extensively studied therapy is Magnesium (Mg) as both a competitive antagonist of calcium at the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and a noncompetitive antagonist of both IP3 and voltage-gated calcium channels, leading to smooth muscle relaxation. In our literature review, several animal and human studies are summarized in addition to two Phase III trials assessing the use of intravenous Mg in the treatment of SAH (IMASH and MASH-2). Though many studies have shown promise for the use of Mg in SAH, there has been inconsistency in study design and outcomes. Furthermore, the results of the recently completed clinical trials have shown no significant benefit from using intravenous Mg as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm.
    05/2013; 2013:943914. DOI:10.1155/2013/943914
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite an undisputed association between vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), there is debate if this association implies causality. It has been suggested that cerebral infarction is a better outcome measure than vasospasm in clinical trials and observational studies. To further investigate the relationship between infarction and outcome, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials that studied the efficacy of pharmaceutical preventive strategies in SAH patients, and had both cerebral infarction and clinical outcome as outcome events. Effect sizes were expressed in (pooled) risk ratio (RR) estimates with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Sensitivity analyses were performed for studies with a low risk of bias and for those who reported outcome at 3 months after SAH. Twenty-four studies including 8,552 patients were included. Pharmaceutical treatments decreased the incidence of both cerebral infarction (RR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.93) and of poor functional outcome (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86 to 0.98). The sensitivity analyses did not change the results essentially. These data suggest that the previously observed association between cerebral infarction and functional outcome implies causality, and that cerebral infarction is a better outcome measure than vasospasm in clinical trials and observational studies.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 04/2011; 31(7):1545-53. DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2011.56 · 5.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous meta-analyses of magnesium sulphate infusion in the treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have become outdated due to recently published clinical trials. Our aim was thus to perform an up-to-date systemic review and meta-analysis of published data on the use of magnesium sulphate infusion in aneurysmal SAH patients. A systemic review and meta-analysis of the literature was carried out on published randomized controlled clinical trials that investigated the efficacy of magnesium sulphate infusion in aneurysmal SAH patients. The results were analyzed with regard to delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), delayed cerebral infarction, and favorable neurological outcomes at three and six months. The risks of bias were assessed using the Jadad criteria, with a Jadad score >3 indicating a lower such risk. Meta-analyses are presented in terms of relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Six eligible studies with 875 patients were reviewed. The pooled RR for DCI was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.36 to 2.09; P = 0.75). That for delayed cerebral infarction was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.97; P = 0.04), although this result did not persist if only randomized clinical trials with a lower risk of bias were included (RR 0.61, 95% CI, 0.31 to 1.22; P = 0.17). The pooled RR for a favorable outcome at three months was 1.14 (95% CI, 0.99 to 1.31; P = 0.07), and that for a favorable outcome at six months was 1.08 (95% CI, 0.94 to 1.24; P = 0.29). The present findings do not lend support to a beneficial effect of magnesium sulphate infusion on delayed cerebral infarction. The reduction in DCI and improvement in the clinical outcomes of aneurysmal SAH patients following magnesium sulphate infusion observed in previous pilot studies are not confirmed, although a beneficial effect cannot be ruled out because of sample size limitation.
    Critical care (London, England) 02/2011; 15(1):R52. DOI:10.1186/cc10017