Psychophysiological reactivity to sleep-related emotional stimuli in primary insomnia

Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Via dei Marsi 78, Rome, Italy.
Behaviour Research and Therapy (Impact Factor: 3.85). 02/2010; 48(6):467-75. DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.01.008
Source: PubMed


The present study examined psychophysiological reactivity to emotional stimuli related and non-related to sleep in people with primary insomnia (PPI) and in good sleepers (GS). Twenty-one PPI and 18 GS were presented with five blocks of neutral, negative, positive, sleep-related negative and sleep-related positive pictures. During the presentation of the pictures, facial electromyography (EMG) of the corrugator and the zygomatic muscles, heart rate (HR) and cardiac vagal tone (CVT) were recorded. Subjective ratings of the stimuli were also collected. We found that only PPI exhibited greater inhibition of the corrugator activity in response to sleep-related positive stimuli compared to the other blocks of stimuli. Furthermore, PPI rated the sleep-related negative stimuli as more unpleasant and arousing and showed higher CVT in response to all stimuli as compared to GS. Results were interpreted as indicating that PPI exhibit craving for sleep-related positive stimuli, and also hyper-arousability in response to sleep-related negative stimuli, as compared to GS. Our results suggest that psychological treatment of insomnia could benefit by the inclusion of strategies dealing with emotional processes linked with sleep processes.

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    • "Although this needs to be tested empirically, it is possible that interventions aimed at decreasing emotion dysregulation (Barlow et al., 2011; Harvey, Sharpley, Ree, Stinson, & Clark, 2007; Ong, Shapiro, & Manber, 2008) might improve current treatments for insomnia, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (Morin, 2006). It is also possible that, as hypothesized by Baglioni, Lombardo, et al. (2010), Baglioni, Spiegelhalder, et al. (2010), elevated negative emotionality or emotion regulation difficulties might modulate the link between insomnia and psychiatric conditions, and, if so, additional interventions targeting emotional processes could enhance treatment outcomes. A number of methodological limitations should be underscored. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The purpose of this longitudinal investigation was to examine the association between emotion regulation and future insomnia (incidence and persistence).DesignA longitudinal study in the general population.MethodsA survey was sent out to 5,000 individuals in the community. To those who returned the baseline questionnaire (n = 2,333), two follow-up surveys, 6 and 18 months later, were sent out and then completed by 1,887 and 1,795 individuals, respectively. The survey contained information about demographic factors, insomnia symptomatology, the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, anxiety, and depression.ResultsThe findings suggested that emotion regulation at baseline was not associated with the incidence or persistence of insomnia. Overall, the effect sizes were very small to medium. When examining changes in emotion regulation over time, a different pattern emerged. Partial support was established for the notion that decreases in emotion regulation were related to incident and persistent insomnia, as a decrease in emotion regulation was associated with a higher likelihood of future insomnia. Yet, the effect sizes were very small to small.Conclusion This study does partly point towards a longitudinal association between emotion dysregulation and insomnia. This might have implications for the conceptualization and management of insomnia as well as for future research.Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Previous research has indicated that emotion dysregulation might be enhanced in patients with insomnia.A number of limitations have however hindered progress in understanding how emotion dysregulation is related to insomnia, such as limited research on the topic and relying solely on cross-sectional data. What does this study add? The current investigation showed that emotion dysregulation is a risk factor for the development of incident and persistent insomnia.This study also shows that increased emotion dysregulation over time heightens the risk of incident and persistent insomnia.
    British Journal of Health Psychology 09/2015; DOI:10.1111/bjhp.12147 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    • "Nevertheless, a sad conclusion to be drawn from the above is that symptoms of insomnia may impede people from remembering the positive aspects of their lives. Although there is an intuitive relationship between emotion and sleep (Baglioni et al., 2010), most studies have used variable-oriented approaches (Bergman & Trost, 2006) when relating measures of affect to sleep measures. For example, the health-related correlates of affect have been studied using the positive and negative affect "
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    ABSTRACT: Patterns of affect, sleep, and autobiographical memories seem related but there are no studies we know of to verify the notion. The purpose of this research is to investigate interrelationships’ between profiles of affect, sleep, and autobiographical memories. A cross-sectional design is employed. Three hundred and thirteen adult students participated. The data generated are viewed from two complementary perspectives. Our cluster analyses identified a group of individual states whose lives appear to be arousing and stressful (high positive and negative affect) yet they slept significantly better than self-destructive states (high on negative affect and low on positive affect). Our regressions imply that negative autobiographical memories are involved in a relationship with sleep independently of fairly stable patterns of affect, biological sex, and age. We finish by noting that apart from investigating these relationships longitudinally, cultural differences in patterns of affect and their health correlates should be explored.
    The Journal of Positive Psychology 07/2013; 8(4):305-313. DOI:10.1080/17439760.2013.800904 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    • "positive stimuli related to sleep) in participants with primary insomnia and in good sleepers (Baglioni et al. 2010). Those with insomnia showed increased inhibition of the corrugator activity (muscle placed at the medial end of the eyebrow) when presented with sleep-related positive stimuli (i.e., displaying people sleeping in bed at nighttime ), relative to other stimuli. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals with primary insomnia (PI) have an attentional bias towards insomnia-specific stimuli, relative to normal sleepers (NS). Also, the aim was to determine if the attentional bias was characterized by vigilance or disengagement. A between-groups, matched design was employed. Forty-two individuals completed the study (PI = 21; NS = 21). Participants completed a dot-probe task with stimuli comprising insomnia-specific (fatigue/malaise) and neutral pictures. It was hypothesized that individuals with PI would show greater attentional bias to insomnia-specific stimuli compared with NS. An overall bias effect was noted. This effect was however not due to vigilance; taking into account the reaction times on neutral trials, the PI group and the NS group did not display significantly different results in reaction times to insomnia-specific pictures. On the contrary, the results suggest that the overall bias effect was due to disengagement; the PI group had significantly longer reaction times than the NS group when shifting away from the insomnia-specific pictures, relative to neutral–neutral picture presentations. The findings suggest that individuals with insomnia are not more vigilant than normal sleepers to insomnia-specific stimuli, but instead have greater difficulties in shifting away from such stimuli.
    Cognitive Therapy and Research 06/2013; 37(3). DOI:10.1007/s10608-012-9486-z · 1.70 Impact Factor
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