Loss of the Tumor Suppressor CYLD Enhances Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling through K63-Linked Ubiquitination of Dvl
ABSTRACT The mechanism by which Wnt receptors transduce signals to activate downstream beta-catenin-mediated target gene transcription remains incompletely understood but involves Frizzled (Fz) receptor-mediated plasma membrane recruitment and activation of the cytoplasmic effector Dishevelled (Dvl). Here, we identify the deubiquitinating enzyme CYLD, the familial cylindromatosis tumor suppressor gene, as a negative regulator of proximal events in Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Depletion of CYLD from cultured cells markedly enhances Wnt-induced accumulation of beta-catenin and target gene activation. Moreover, we demonstrate hyperactive Wnt signaling in human cylindroma skin tumors that arise from mutations in CYLD. At the molecular level, CYLD interacts with and regulates K63-linked ubiquitination of Dvl. Enhanced ubiquitination of the polymerization-prone DIX domain in CYLD-deficient cells positively links to the signaling activity of Dvl. Together, our results argue that loss of CYLD instigates tumor growth in human cylindromatosis through a mechanism in which hyperubiquitination of polymerized Dvl drives enhancement of Wnt responses.
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ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is the main system for controlled protein degradation and a key regulator of fundamental cellular processes. The dependency of cancer cells on a functioning UPS has made this an attractive target for development of drugs that show selectivity for tumor cells. Deubiquitinases (DUBs, ubiquitin isopeptidases) are components of the UPS that catalyze the removal of ubiquitin moieties from target proteins or polyubiquitin chains, resulting in altered signaling or changes in protein stability. A number of DUBs regulate processes associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis, and as such represent candidate targets for cancer therapeutics. The majority of DUBs are cysteine proteases and are likely to be more "druggable" than E3 ligases. Cysteine residues in the active sites of DUBs are expected to be reactive to various electrophiles. Various compounds containing α,β−unsaturated ketones have indeed been demonstrated to inhibit cellular DUB activity. Inhibition of proteasomal cysteine DUB enzymes (i.e. USP14 and UCHL5) can be predicted to be particularly cytotoxic to cancer cells as it leads to blocking of proteasome function and accumulation of proteasomal substrates. We here provide an overall review of DUBs relevant to cancer and of various small molecules which have been demonstrated to inhibit DUB activity.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 11/2014; 147. DOI:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2014.11.002 · 7.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CYLD, an ubiquitin hydrolase, has an expanding repertoire of regulatory roles in cell signalling and is dysregulated in a number of cancers. To dissect CYLD function we used a proteomics approach to identify CYLD interacting proteins and identified MIB2, an ubiquitin ligase enzyme involved in Notch signalling, as a protein which interacts with CYLD. Coexpression of CYLD and MIB2 resulted in stabilisation of MIB2 protein levels and was associated with reduced levels of JAG2, a ligand implicated in Notch signalling. Conversely, gene silencing of CYLD using siRNA, resulted in increased JAG2 expression and upregulation of Notch signalling. We investigated Notch pathway activity in skin tumours from patients with germline mutations in CYLD and found that JAG2 protein levels and Notch target genes were upregulated. In particular, RUNX1 was overexpressed in CYLD defective tumour cells. Finally, primary cell cultures of CYLD defective tumours demonstrated reduced viability when exposed to γ-secretase inhibitors that pharmacologically target Notch signalling. Taken together these data indicate an oncogenic dependency on Notch signalling and suggest potential novel therapeutic approaches for patients with CYLD defective tumours.Oncotarget 12/2014; 5(23):12126-40. · 6.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs are increasingly recognized as playing important roles in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumorigenesis. Here we identified an essential role for miR-362-5p in the regulation of HCC development. We found that miR-362-5p was significantly up-regulated in HCCs and associated with HCC progression. Inhibition of miR-362-5p in HCC cells dramatically decreased cell proliferation, clonogenicity, migration and invasion in vitro as well as tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. We subsequently identified that CYLD was a target gene of miR-362-5p. Furthermore, knockdown of CYLD expression partially counteracted the tumor suppressive effects of miR-362-5p inhibitors. Finally, we have shown that miR-362-5p acts through CYLD to activate the NF-κB signaling pathway, which contributes to HCC progression. Taken together, our findings indicate that miR-362-5p belongs to a new class of oncomiR that regulates HCC cell aggressiveness, thus providing new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying HCC development. This study also suggests that miR-362-5p may serve as a novel therapeutic target for miRNA based HCC therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Cancer Letters 11/2014; 356(2). DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2014.10.041 · 5.02 Impact Factor