Attentional bias training in depression: therapeutic effects depend on depression severity.
ABSTRACT Depressed individuals show maintained attention to negative information and reduced attention for positive information. Selective biases in information processing are considered to have an important role in the origin, maintenance and recurrence of depressive episodes. In two experiments we investigated the effects of attentional bias manipulation on mood and depressive symptoms. In experiment 1 we investigated the effects of attentional bias manipulation compared to a control procedure in a sample of dysphoric students (N = 48) showing mild to severe levels of depressive symptoms. In experiment 2 we investigated the same attentional training procedure in a sample of depressed in- and outpatients (N = 35). Mild improvements on symptom severity were observed in students showing mild depressive symptoms. However, in students showing moderate to severe depressive symptoms, depressive symptoms increased after the training. No beneficial effects of training on top of therapy and/or medication were found in depressed patients. These results indicate that therapeutic effects of attentional bias modification might be dependent on depression severity.
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ABSTRACT: study aims to compare emotion face and emotion image dot-probe tasks in predicting depression. The study uses descriptive correlational methods. The subjects studied during the research included the people between the ages of 19 -40 years, who visited a particular psychology clinic in Tehran, Iran from 2011 to 2012. The patients studied received a clinical diagnosis, based on an unstructured interview, as per the 4th Edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), and a screening test using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, cut off point 21 and higher). Then 82 individuals were selected, using the convenience sampling method. Two computerized dot-probe tasks (emotional faces and images) were administered to the participants. Pearson's correlation coefficients and univariate re-gression analysis showed that, in both tasks, attention bias was significantly linked with depression and could predict it (P < 0.01). Fisher's Z-test further showed that the emotion face dot-probe task could pre-dict depression more precisely than the emotion image dot-probe task (P < 0.01).
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ABSTRACT: Background. Attention bias modification (ABM) is a new treatment for affective disorders. A meta-analysis of ABM for anxiety disorders showed that the effect size may be large but the number of studies is low. The working mechanism is still unclear, and little is known about the optimal treatment parameters. ABM for depression is much less studied. A few studies claimed positive effects but the sample sizes are low. Furthermore, the treatment parameters varied widely and differed from the anxiety literature. Aim. To select the most promising version of ABM for depression for further evaluation in clinical trials. Methods. Multiple case series design. We tested six versions of ABM that varied on stimulus duration and training direction. Thirty students with mild to moderate symptoms of depression underwent four sessions of ABM. Change of attentional bias was measured during each session. Generalization of treatment effects and the role of awareness of receiving training were also investigated. Results. None of the investigated versions of ABM had a consistent effect on attentional bias. Changes of attentional bias in individual participants the effects did not generalize to untrained stimuli. Conclusion. It is unlikely that any of these ABM versions will have a specific effect on symptoms in controlled studies.03/2013; 2013:414170. DOI:10.1155/2013/414170
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ABSTRACT: Attentional bias is assumed to be partly responsible for the onset and maintenance of anxiety by major cognitive theories of emotional disorders. Although much is already known about the therapeutic effects of attentional bias training, only a few studies have examined the mechanism responsible for these effects. In order to test if low-level, cognitive effects of attentional bias training depend on attentional control, 73 participants, who completed the STAI-x2 and the ACS questionnaires, were randomly assigned to a control (n = 37) or attentional training group (n = 36). The attentional manipulation was followed by a search task, during which novel neutral or negative faces could be presented within an array of all-neutral, all-negative or all-positive faces. It was found that individuals with higher ACS score displayed stronger attentional training effects, i.e., they were less accurate in detecting distinctive negative faces, and this effect was not found to be associated with STAI-x2 score. These results show that there is individual variability even in immediate, cognitive effects of attentional bias modification and that special abilities, such as attentional control, might be required for attentional training to be efficient.Polish Psychological Bulletin 12/2012; 43(4):272-277. DOI:10.2478/v10059-012-0030-5