Ten years of NAD-dependent SIR2 family deacetylases: implications for metabolic diseases. Trends Pharmacol Sci

Department of Developmental Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA.
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences (Impact Factor: 11.54). 03/2010; 31(5):212-20. DOI: 10.1016/
Source: PubMed


Since the discovery of NAD-dependent deacetylase activity of the silent information regulator-2 (SIR2) family ('sirtuins'), many exciting connections between protein deacetylation and energy metabolism have been revealed. The importance of sirtuins in the regulation of many fundamental biological responses to various nutritional and environmental stimuli has been firmly established. Sirtuins have also emerged as critical regulators for aging and longevity in model organisms. Their absolute requirement of NAD has revived an enthusiasm in the study of mammalian biosynthesis of NAD. Sirtuin-targeted pharmaceutical and nutriceutical interventions against age-associated diseases are also on the horizon. This review summarizes the recent progress in sirtuin research (particularly in mammalian sirtuin biology) and re-evaluates the connection between sirtuins, metabolism, and age-associated diseases (e.g., type-2 diabetes) to set a basis for the next ten years of sirtuin research.

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    • "Among them, SIRT6 is localized to the nucleus and is involved in transcriptional silencing, genome stability, and longevity [7]. Sirt6 is implicated in the regulation of life span and ageing through the regulation of NFkB function [7]. We previously disclosed that Sirt6 is expressed in chondrocytes and controls proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes through the regulation of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) expression [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disorder commonly associated with metabolic syndrome. As ageing and obesity has a great impact on the initiation/severity of OA, herein we sought to investigate the involvement of Sirt6 in the crosstalk between ageing and metabolic syndrome/OA. Sirt6 haploinsufficiency in mice promoted the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the IPFP. Enhanced inflammation of the IPFP in the aged Sirt6+/- HFD group was paralleled with accelerated OA change, including osteophyte growth and chondrocyte hypertrophy. Conversely, mesenchyme-specific Sirt6-deficient mice revealed both attenuated chondrocyte hypertrophy and proteoglycan synthesis, although chondrocyte senescence was enhanced as shown in the aged WT mice. Thus Sirt6 has key roles in the relationship among ageing, metabolic syndrome, and OA.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2015; 466(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.09.019 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    • "Our western blotting showed a decreased expression of acetylated p53 and no increase of acetyl-FOXO1 in uveitic tissues that occurred after the stimulation of intravitreal RvD1 and blockade of the SIRT1 activity with EX527. p53 and FOXO are some of the numerous no-histone proteins targeted by SIRT1 together with such NF-í µí¼…B and mKu70 that are involved in DNA repair and factors involved in the nitric oxide synthase [2] [3] [30] [36]. Together with SIRT1 they orchestrate the mechanisms of the "
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    ABSTRACT: Rat endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) is a well-established model of human uveitis. In this model, intravitreal injection of resolvin D1 (RvD1, 10-100-1000 ng/kg) 1 hour after subcutaneous treatment of Sprague-Dawley rats with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 200 μg/rat) significantly prevented the development of uveitis into the eye. RvD1 dose-dependently increased the expression of sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) within the eye, while it decreased the expression of acetyl-p53 and acetyl-FOXO1. These effects were accompanied by local downregulation of some microRNAs related to the expression and activity of SIRT1. These were miR-195-5p, miR-200a-3p, miR-34a-5p, and miR-145-5p. An increase of manganese superoxide dismutase and decrease of caspase 3 were evident after RvD1 treatment. In another set of experiments, the protective effects of RvD1 (1000 ng/kg) were partly abolished by the pretreatment of the rats with EX527 (10 mg/kg/day, i.p.), a specific inhibitor of SIRT1 activity, for 7 days prior to the induction of EIU in rats. Similarly, the effects of RvD1 (1000 ng/kg) on the SIRT1 protein expression were abolished by Boc2, N-t-butoxycarbonyl-PLPLP, a specific formyl-peptide receptor type 2/lipoxin A receptor antagonist. Therefore, an interplay of the SIRT1 activity on the RvD1 mediated resolution of EIU is argued.
    Mediators of Inflammation 07/2015; 2015:1-10. DOI:10.1155/2015/126408 · 3.24 Impact Factor
    • "Mammals have seven sirtuins (SIRT1–SIRT7) with distinct subcellular localization and biological actions (Houtkooper et al., 2012). The enzymatic activity of sirtuins is critically dependent on the obligatory cosubstrate NAD + , making them intracellular sensors of the metabolic environment (Houtkooper et al., 2010; Imai and Guarente, 2010). The function of SIRT7, which, along with SIRT1 and SIRT6, is present in the nucleus, is only partially understood. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial activity is controlled by proteins encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Here, we identify Sirt7 as a crucial regulator of mitochondrial homeostasis. Sirt7 deficiency in mice induces multisystemic mitochondrial dysfunction, which is reflected by increased blood lactate levels, reduced exercise performance, cardiac dysfunction, hepatic microvesicular steatosis, and age-related hearing loss. This link between SIRT7 and mitochondrial function is translatable in humans, where SIRT7 overexpression rescues the mitochondrial functional defect in fibroblasts with a mutation in NDUFSI. These wide-ranging effects of SIRT7 on mitochondrial homeostasis are the consequence of the deacetylation of distinct lysine residues located in the hetero- and homodimerization domains of GABPβ1, a master regulator of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes. SIRT7-mediated deacetylation of GABPβ1 facilitates complex formation with GABPα and the transcriptional activation of the GABPα/GABPβ heterotetramer. Altogether, these data suggest that SIRT7 is a dynamic nuclear regulator of mitochondrial function through its impact on GABPβ1 function.
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