Role of the glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor in the control of energy balance.

Department of Psychology, School of Arts and Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, 3720 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
Physiology & Behavior (Impact Factor: 3.03). 03/2010; 100(5):503-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.02.029
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The peripheral and central glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) systems play an essential role in glycemic and energy balance regulation. Thus, pharmacological targeting of peripheral and/or central GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) may represent a potential long-term treatment option for both obesity and type-II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Uncovering and understanding the neural pathways, physiological mechanisms, specific GLP-1R populations, and intracellular signaling cascades that mediate the food intake inhibitory and incretin effects produced by GLP-1R activation are vital to the development of these potential successful therapeutics. Particular focus will be given to the essential role of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in the caudal brainstem, as well as the gut-to-brain communication by vagal afferent fibers in mediating the physiological and behavioral responses following GLP-1R activation. The paper represents an invited review by a symposium, award winner or keynote speaker at the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior [SSIB] Annual Meeting in Portland, July 2009.

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    ABSTRACT: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) and leptin are anorectic hormones. Previously, we showed that intraperitoneal coadministration of subthreshold GLP1 with leptin dramatically reduced food intake in rats. Here, by using midbrain-transected rats, we investigated the role of the neural pathway from the hindbrain to the hypothalamus in the interaction of GLP1 and leptin to reduce food intake. Food intake reduction induced by coinjection of GLP1 and leptin was blocked in midbrain-transected rats. These findings indicate that the ascending neural pathway from the hindbrain plays an important role in transmitting the anorectic signals provided by coinjection of GLP1 and leptin.
    Journal of Endocrinology 11/2013; DOI:10.1530/JOE-13-0272 · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its long acting analogs comprise a novel class of type 2 diabetes (T2D) treatment. What makes them unique among other T2D drugs is their concurrent ability to reduce food intake, a great benefit considering the frequent comorbidity of T2D and obesity. The precise neural site of action underlying this beneficial effect is vigorously researched. In accordance with the classical model of food intake control GLP-1 action on feeding has been primarily ascribed to receptor populations in the hypothalamus and the hindbrain. In contrast to this common view, relevant GLP-1 receptor populations are distributed more widely, with a prominent mesolimbic complement emerging. The physiological relevance of the mesolimbic GLP-1 is suggested by the demonstration that similar anorexic effects can be obtained by independent stimulation of the mesolimbic and hypothalamic GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R). Results reviewed here support the idea that mesolimbic GLP-1R are sufficient to reduce hunger-driven feeding, the hedonic value of food and food-motivation. In parallel, emerging evidence suggests that the range of action of GLP-1 on reward behavior is not limited to food-derived reward but extends to cocaine, amphetamine, and alcohol reward. The new discoveries concerning GLP-1 action on the mesolimbic reward system significantly extend the potential therapeutic range of this drug target.
    Frontiers in Neuroscience 10/2013; 7:181. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2013.00181
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    ABSTRACT: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an insulinotropic gastrointestinal peptide that is primarily produced by intestinal endocrine L-cells, stimulates satiety. Ghrelin, a hormone that is produced predominantly by the stomach stimulates hunger. There are two forms of ghrelin: active ghrelin and inactive des-acyl ghrelin. After depriving mice of food for 24 h, we demonstrated that the systemic administration of liraglutide (100 μ g/kg), a human GLP-1 analog that binds to the GLP-1 receptor, increased (1.4-fold) the plasma levels of active GLP-1 and suppressed the plasma levels of active and des-acyl ghrelin after 1 h. Despite the elevated plasma levels of active GLP-1 (11-fold), liraglutide had no effect on the plasma levels of active or des-acyl ghrelin after 12 h. These findings demonstrated that liraglutide suppresses the plasma levels of active and des-acyl ghrelin independently of active GLP-1 levels in fasted mice, suggesting a novel in vivo biological effect of liraglutide beyond regulating plasma GLP-1.
    08/2013; 2013:184753. DOI:10.1155/2013/184753


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