Article

Pilot case-control investigation of risk factors for hip fractures in the urban Indian population

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders (Impact Factor: 1.9). 03/2010; 11(1):49. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-11-49
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Despite the reported high prevalence of osteoporosis in India, there have been no previous studies examining the risk factors for hip fracture in the Indian population.
We carried out a case control investigation comprising 100 case subjects (57 women and 43 men) admitted with a first hip fracture into one of three hospitals across New Delhi. The 100 controls were age and sex matched subjects who were either healthy visitors not related to the case patients or hospital staff. Information from all subjects was obtained through a questionnaire based interview.
There was a significant increase in the number of cases of hip fracture with increasing age. There were significantly more women (57%) than men (43%). Univariate analysis identified protective effects for increased activity, exercise, calcium and vitamin supplements, almonds, fish, paneer (cottage cheese), curd (plain yogurt), and milk. However, tea and other caffeinated beverages were significant risk factors. In women, hormone/estrogen therapy appeared to have a marginal protective effect. For all cases, decreased agility, visual impairment, long term medications, chronic illnesses increased the risk of hip fracture. The multivariate analysis confirmed a protective effect of increased activity and also showed a decrease in hip fracture risk with increasing body mass index (odds ratio (OR) 0.024, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.006-0.10 & OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.97 respectively). Individuals who take calcium supplements have a decreased risk of hip fracture (OR 0.076; CI 0.017-0.340), as do individuals who eat fish (OR 0.094; CI 0.020-0.431), and those who eat paneer (OR 0.152; 0.031-0.741). Tea drinkers have a higher risk of hip fracture (OR 22.8; 95% CI 3.73-139.43). Difficulty in getting up from a chair also appears to be an important risk factor for hip fractures (OR 14.53; 95% CI 3.86-54.23).
In the urban Indian population, dietary calcium, vitamin D, increased body mass index, and higher activity levels have a significant protective effect on hip fracture. On the other hand, caffeine intake and decreased agility increase the risk of hip fracture. Future studies should be done in order to direct primary preventive programs for hip fracture in India.

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    • "This result was similar with the most included studies. Among all the included studies, only a case–control study demonstrated that tea drinking was a risk factor of the incidence of fracture [29]. Through the comparison of 100 cases and 100 age and sex matched controls, tea drinkers was reported to have a higher risk of hip fractures (OR, 22.8; 95% CI, 3.73-139.43). "
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    ABSTRACT: Fractures are important causes of healthy damage and economic loss nowadays. The conclusions of observational studies on tea consumption and fracture risk are still inconsistent. The objective of this meta-analysis is to determine the effect of tea drinking on the risk of fractures. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase and reference lists of the relevant articles. Observational studies that reported an estimate of the association between tea drinking and incidence of fractures were included. A meta-analysis was conducted by the STATA software. A total of 9 studies involving 147,950 individuals that examined the association between tea consumption and risk of fractures were included in this meta-analysis. The odds risks (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a random-effects model. The pooled OR of 9 observational studies for the tea consumption on risk of fracture was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.78-1.04). In the subgroup analyses, no significant association was detected in neither cohort studies (n = 3; OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.89-1.06) nor case-control studies (n = 6; OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.70-1.19), respectively. No significant association was detected in the dose-response meta-analysis. Tea consumption might not be associated with the risk of fractures. The following large-sample and well-designed studies are required to confirm the existing conclusions.Virtual slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5309904231178427.
    Diagnostic Pathology 03/2014; 9(1):44. DOI:10.1186/1746-1596-9-44 · 2.41 Impact Factor
    • "It is seen that a large population of the healthy adult population has low or borderline low serum 25(OH)D levels which further increases the risk of falls and fracture.[34567] Vitamin D plays a critical role in bone health.[1589101112] Optimization of vitamin D status is therefore an essential component of preventing and managing osteoporosis especially in vulnerable groups like postmenopausal women.[13] "
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the effect of two different doses (500 and 1000 IU/day) of oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) on serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels in apparently healthy postmenopausal Indian women. Serum 25(OH)D, calcium with albumin, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were measured in 92 apparently healthy postmenopausal women. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the three groups and received supplementation for 3 months each. Each group received 1000 mg calcium carbonate daily while groups B and C received 500 and 1000 IU of cholecalciferol in addition, respectively. The tests were repeated after 3 months. At baseline, 83.7% subjects had vitamin D deficiency (≤20 ng/mL). The difference in the percentage change in mean serum 25(OH)D levels from baseline in group A (-30.5 ± 5.3%), group B (+8.9 ± 19.7%), and in group C (+97.8 ± 53.3%) was statistically significant (P < 0.001) between the three groups. Serum 25(OH)D level >20 ng/mL was achieved in 4.7% (1/21), 16% (4/25), and 66.67% (12/18) subjects in groups A, B, and C, respectively. No significant change was found in serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels at 3 months in either of the groups from baseline. Standard dose of cholecalciferol available in "calcium tablets" (250 IU per 500 mg calcium carbonate) is not adequate for achieving optimum serum 25(OH)D levels in Indian postmenopausal women. Higher dose of vitamin D supplementation with 1000 IU/day (500 IU per 500 mg calcium carbonate) daily is superior to the standard dose therapy. For achievement of optimum serum 25(OH)D levels (>30 ng/mL) in Indian postmenopausal women, still higher doses of vitamin D are likely to be required.
    03/2013; 17(5):883-889. DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.117237
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    The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 09/2010; 58:535-7.
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