Pilot case-control investigation of risk factors for hip fractures in the urban Indian population
ABSTRACT Despite the reported high prevalence of osteoporosis in India, there have been no previous studies examining the risk factors for hip fracture in the Indian population.
We carried out a case control investigation comprising 100 case subjects (57 women and 43 men) admitted with a first hip fracture into one of three hospitals across New Delhi. The 100 controls were age and sex matched subjects who were either healthy visitors not related to the case patients or hospital staff. Information from all subjects was obtained through a questionnaire based interview.
There was a significant increase in the number of cases of hip fracture with increasing age. There were significantly more women (57%) than men (43%). Univariate analysis identified protective effects for increased activity, exercise, calcium and vitamin supplements, almonds, fish, paneer (cottage cheese), curd (plain yogurt), and milk. However, tea and other caffeinated beverages were significant risk factors. In women, hormone/estrogen therapy appeared to have a marginal protective effect. For all cases, decreased agility, visual impairment, long term medications, chronic illnesses increased the risk of hip fracture. The multivariate analysis confirmed a protective effect of increased activity and also showed a decrease in hip fracture risk with increasing body mass index (odds ratio (OR) 0.024, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.006-0.10 & OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.97 respectively). Individuals who take calcium supplements have a decreased risk of hip fracture (OR 0.076; CI 0.017-0.340), as do individuals who eat fish (OR 0.094; CI 0.020-0.431), and those who eat paneer (OR 0.152; 0.031-0.741). Tea drinkers have a higher risk of hip fracture (OR 22.8; 95% CI 3.73-139.43). Difficulty in getting up from a chair also appears to be an important risk factor for hip fractures (OR 14.53; 95% CI 3.86-54.23).
In the urban Indian population, dietary calcium, vitamin D, increased body mass index, and higher activity levels have a significant protective effect on hip fracture. On the other hand, caffeine intake and decreased agility increase the risk of hip fracture. Future studies should be done in order to direct primary preventive programs for hip fracture in India.
SourceAvailable from: Beena BansalIranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 07/2014; 18(4):449. DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.137485
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ABSTRACT: Milk products contain proteins of high biologic value and digestibility; they also contain fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, specially calcium and phosphorus. Diversification of milk products consumption allows a high consumptiom of the above mentioned products, optimizing nutrient intake. In Spain, food consumption of milk products lower than the recommended amounts was observed in 20 to 40 % of the children and 30 to 45 % of the adults. Milk products represent 44 to 70 % of calcium intake in the Spanish population. Milk products consumption is positively associated with a high bone mineral density. More than 35 % of children and adults in Spain had calcium intakes below the national recommendations. Yogur contains less lactose than regular milk and fermenting milk bacteries express functioning lactase. Yogur intake is recommended to improve lactose digestion in individuals having lactose maldigestion. It seems reasonable to recommend yogur to improve calcium absorption, at least in post-menopausal women, and also for decreasing incidence and duration of infectious gastrointestinal disorders in children. Fermented milk products consumption, before, during and after medical eradication of Helicobacter Pylori, increases 5 to 10 % the effect of the specific drug therapy. Its consumption before, during and after antibiotic treatment, could also reduce the risk of diarrhea associated with the use of the above mentioned drugs. The Spanish Federation of Nutrition, Feeding and Dietetic Societies (FESNAD) recommend the following consumption of milk and milk products: Adults, 2-3 portions/day; school-age children, 2-3 portions/day; adolescents, 3-4 portions/day; pregnant and lactating women and during menopause, 3-4 portions/day; elderly, 2-4 portions/day. Considering yogur and fermented milk consumption show some advantages when compared with other milk products, we can recommend yogur within a daily and varied consumption of milk products.Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 08/2013; 28(6):2039-89. DOI:10.3305/nh.2013.28.6.6856 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fractures are important causes of healthy damage and economic loss nowadays. The conclusions of observational studies on tea consumption and fracture risk are still inconsistent. The objective of this meta-analysis is to determine the effect of tea drinking on the risk of fractures. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase and reference lists of the relevant articles. Observational studies that reported an estimate of the association between tea drinking and incidence of fractures were included. A meta-analysis was conducted by the STATA software. A total of 9 studies involving 147,950 individuals that examined the association between tea consumption and risk of fractures were included in this meta-analysis. The odds risks (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a random-effects model. The pooled OR of 9 observational studies for the tea consumption on risk of fracture was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.78-1.04). In the subgroup analyses, no significant association was detected in neither cohort studies (n = 3; OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.89-1.06) nor case-control studies (n = 6; OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.70-1.19), respectively. No significant association was detected in the dose-response meta-analysis. Tea consumption might not be associated with the risk of fractures. The following large-sample and well-designed studies are required to confirm the existing conclusions.Virtual slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5309904231178427.Diagnostic Pathology 03/2014; 9(1):44. DOI:10.1186/1746-1596-9-44 · 2.41 Impact Factor