Evaluation of molecular markers in canine mammary tumors: correlation with histological grading.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate molecular markers involved in mammary tumorigenesis in a canine model that mimics many essential elements of human breast cancer. Thirty mammary gland tumors and control tissues obtained from female dogs were included in the study. We analyzed changes in the expression of markers of hormone and receptor status (estradiol, estrogen receptor; ER and HER-2/neu), hormone metabolism (CYP1A1 and CYP1B1), cell proliferation and survival [proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), glutathione S-transferase-P (GST-P), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB-p50, NF-kappaB-p65), phosphorylated-inhibitor of kappaB-alpha (p-IkappaB-alpha) and IkappaB], apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax, caspases, Apaf-1, cytochrome-C, and PARP), invasion [matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 (MMP-2, MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), and reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK)], angiogenesis [vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)], and epigenetics [DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt-1), histone deacetylase (HDAC-1)] by immunohistochemical localization and Western blot analysis and correlated these with histological grade. The present study provides evidence that increased expression of ER, HER-2/neu, estradiol, and its metabolizing enzymes, as well as proteins involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis evasion, invasion, and angiogenesis may confer a selective growth advantage to canine mammary tumors. To our knowledge this is the first report on the hallmark capabilities of canine mammary tumors, which lends credence to the view that the dog is a valuable model for human breast cancer studies.
- SourceAvailable from: Shih Neng-Yao[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: α-Enolase (ENO1) is a key glycolytic enzyme implicated in the development of many human cancers including breast cancer. Increased expression of ENO1 has recently been reported in estrogen (ER)-positive human breast cancer patients. The present study examined the expression of ENO1 and assessed its significance in canine mammary carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining was employed to investigate the expression of ENO1 in 82 cases of canine mammary tumor (32 benign tumors and 50 carcinomas). Quantification of immunohistochemistry was carried out using Quick score and the results showed cytoplasmic ENO1 overexpression in 9 of the 50 carcinomas (18%). Overexpression of ENO1 correlated significantly with shorter cause-specific survival (P = 0.019), but was not associated with ER positivity in canine mammary carcinoma. Our findings suggest that overexpression of ENO1 may be used as a prognostic marker for poor outcome in canine mammary carcinoma.BMC Veterinary Research 01/2011; 7:62. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: At mitosis, cells undergo drastic alterations in morphology and cytoskeletal organization including cell rounding during prophase, mitotic spindle assembly during prometaphase and metaphase, chromatid segregation in anaphase, and cytokinesis during telophase. It is well established that myosin II is a motor responsible for cytokinesis. Recent reports have indicated that myosin II is also involved in spindle assembly and karyokinesis. In this review, we summarize current understanding of the functions of myosin II in mitosis and cytokinesis of higher eukaryotes, and discuss the roles of possible upstream molecules that control myosin II in these mitotic events.Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 03/2011; 510(2):76-82. · 3.37 Impact Factor