A plant-derived hydrolysable tannin inhibits CFTR chloride channel: a potential treatment of diarrhea.
ABSTRACT The present study examined the effects and mechanisms of actions of penta-m-digalloyl-glucose (PDG), a hydrolysable tannin extracted from Chinese gallnut, on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR).
Fisher rat thyroid cells stably expressing human CFTR (FRT cells) and human intestinal T84 cells were used as cell models to investigate the effects of PDG on chloride secretion using short-circuit current analysis. The mechanisms by which PDG affected chloride secretion were also examined. Finally, in vivo antidiarrheal efficacy and effects of PDG on intestinal fluid absorption were evaluated in mouse closed-loop models.
In FRT cells, apical chloride current induced by forskolin, CPT-cAMP and apigenin were reversibly inhibited by PDG (IC50 approximately 10microM) without effects on intracellular cAMP content and cell viability. Similarly, in T84 cells, PDG effectively inhibited chloride secretion induced by forskolin and cholera toxin. However, it had no effect on calcium-induced chloride secretion. In mice, a single intraluminal injection of PDG (0.6 mg/kg) reduced cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion by 75% with no effect on intestinal fluid absorption.
PDG represents a new class of CFTR inhibitors. Further development of this class of compounds may provide a new therapeutic intervention for diarrhea.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the antidiarrheal efficacy and pharmacological properties of ethyl 2-(4-oxo-3-o-tolyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-ylthio)acetate (DQA) as an inhibitor of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) both in vitro and in vivo. The effects of DQA on CFTR function and cell viability were investigated in Fisher rat thyroid (FRT) cells expressing human CFTR and human intestinal epithelial T84 cells by short-circuit current measurements and MTT assays, respectively. In vivo antidiarrheal efficacy of DQA was evaluated in a closed loop model of cholera in mice. In permeabilized FRT cells, apical chloride current induced by CFTR agonists (10 μM forskolin, 100 μM CPT-cAMP, and 20 μM apigenin) was inhibited by DQA with IC(50) ~ 20 μM and complete inhibition at 200 μM. The inhibitory effect was reversible and not associated with cytotoxicity to FRT cells (5-500 μM DQA for 24 h). Likewise, DQA effectively inhibited both forskolin and cholera toxin-induced transepithelial chloride secretion in T84 cells. In mice, intraluminal injection of 100 μM DQA reduced cholera toxin (1 μg/closed loop)-induced intestinal fluid secretion by 85% without affecting intestinal fluid absorption. DQA represents a new class of small molecule CFTR inhibitor with potential application in treatment of cholera.Indian Journal of Pharmacology 09/2012; 44(5):619-23. DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100392 · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tannins, a group of major active components of Chinese rhubarb and widely distributed in nature, have a significant antidiarrhoeal activity. Aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 play important roles in regulating water transfer during diarrhoea. The present study aims to determine the effect of the total tannins extract of rhubarb on aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 in diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by magnesium sulphate (MgSO4). Our results showed that rhubarb tannins extract (RTE) significantly decreased the faecal water content in colon and evaluation index of defecation of diarrhoea mice. Interestingly, RTE could markedly reduce the mRNA and protein expression levels of AQPs 2 and 3 in apical and lateral mucosal epithelial cells in the colons of diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by MgSO4 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, RTE suppressed the production of cyclic monophosphate- (cAMP-) dependent protein kinase A catalytic subunits α (PKA C-α) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB, Ser133) in MgSO4-induced HT-29 cells. Our data showed for the first time that RTE inhibit AQPs 2 and 3 expression in vivo and in vitro via downregulating PKA/p-CREB signal pathway, which accounts for the antidiarrhoeal effect of RTE.BioMed Research International 08/2014; 2014:619465. DOI:10.1155/2014/619465 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Previous investigation showed that polyphenols abundantly found in many plants could inhibit Cl(-) secretion. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of phenol containing xanthone derivatives on cAMP-activated intestinal Cl(-) secretion and evaluate potential benefits of these compounds in the treatment of cholera. Four hydroxy xanthones were synthesized via oxidative coupling reaction of the corresponding ortho-hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxyphenols. Short-circuit current and apical Cl(-) current measurements across monolayers of human intestinal epithelial (T84) cell and Fisher rat thyroid cells transfected with human CFTR (FRT-hCFTR cell) were performed to determine the effect of hydroxyxanthones on cAMP-activated Cl(-) secretion. Intracellular cAMP was measured by immunoassay methods. Anti-diarrheal efficacy was evaluated using closed loop model of cholera. Among the tested xanthones, 1,3,6-trihydroxyxanthone (THX-001) was found to be the most potent derivative in the inhibition of cAMP-activated Cl(-) secretion across T84 cell monolayers (IC(50)~100μM). Electrophysiological analysis of T84 cells and FRT-hCFTR cells revealed that THX-001 targeted two distinct cAMP-activated Cl(-) channels in the apical membrane of T84 cells, namely, CFTR and inward rectifying Cl(-) channel (IRC). In contrast, THX-001 had no effect on intracellular cAMP levels in these cells. Importantly, THX-001 completely abolished cholera toxin-induced Cl(-) secretion across T84 cell monolayers and significantly inhibited cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in mouse closed loop models. This study revealed that hydroxyxanthone represents another chemical class of polyphenolic compounds that may hold promise as anti-secretory therapy for cholera.Life sciences 05/2012; 90(25-26):988-94. DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2012.05.001 · 2.30 Impact Factor