Article

Postinjury Coagulopathy Management Goal Directed Resuscitation via POC Thrombelastography

Department of Surgery, Denver Health Medical Center, University of Colorado Denver, CO, USA.
Annals of surgery (Impact Factor: 7.19). 03/2010; 251(4):604-14. DOI: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181d3599c
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Progressive postinjury coagulopathy remains the fundamental rationale for damage control surgery, but the decision to abort operative intervention must occur before laboratory confirmation of coagulopathy. Current massive transfusion protocols have embraced pre-emptive resuscitation strategies emphasizing administration of packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, and platelets in ratios approximating 1:1:1 during the first 24 hours postinjury, based on US military retrospective experience and recent noncontrolled civilian data. This policy, termed "damage control resuscitation" assumes that patients presenting with life threatening hemorrhage at risk for postinjury coagulopathy should receive component therapy in rations approximating those found in whole blood during the first 24 hours. While we concur with the concept of pre-emptive coagulation factor replacement, and initially suggested this in 1982, we remain concerned for the continued unbridled administration of fresh frozen plasma and platelets without objective evidence of their specific requirement. A major limitation of current massive transfusion protocols is the lack of real time assessment of coagulation function to guide evolving blood component requirements. Existing laboratory coagulation testing was originally designed for evaluation of hemophilia and subsequently used for monitoring anticoagulation therapy. Consequently, the applicability of these tests in the trauma setting has never been proven and the time required to conduct these assays is incompatible with prompt correction of the coagulopathy in the trauma setting. This review examines the current approach to postinjury coagulopathy, including identification of patients at risk, resuscitation strategies, design and implementation of institutional massive transfusion protocols, and the potential benefits of goal-directed therapy by real time assessment of coagulation function via point of care rapid thromboelastography.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
171 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent research in the management of haemorrhage has led to several changes in clinical practice. Evidence is accumulating that point-of-care testing results in fewer transfusions, improved patient outcomes, and reduced hospital costs. However, there is still insufficient high quality evidence to support transfusion guidelines and algorithms based on point-of-care tests alone, and more robust studies are needed. The implementation of point-of-care testing requires institutional support and senior clinical leadership to realise the benefits, with educational programmes, audit, and feedback regarding transfusion practice. A change in philosophy is required, from performing testing only when there is an obvious bleeding problem, towards the concept of routinely monitoring high-risk patients throughout the surgical procedure. This informs clinical practice, establishes normal ranges for that population, identifies patients at risk and allows early identification and treatment of evolving coagulopathy.
    Anaesthesia 01/2015; 70(s1). DOI:10.1111/anae.12909 · 3.85 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Acute coagulopathy associated with trauma has been recognized for decades and is a constituent of the "triad of death'' together with hypothermia and acidosis. Study Objective: The aim of this study was to determine to what extent coagulopathy is already established upon emergency department (ED) admission and the association with the severity of injury, impaired outcome, and mortality. Methods: Ninety-one injured children were admitted to the ED in our hospital. Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score were used to estimate injury severity, and organ function was assessed by the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. Results: Coagulopathy upon pediatric intensive care unit admission was present in 33 children (39.3%): 21 males and 12 females. PTS ranged from 1 to 12 (mean 8.2) in 51 children without coagulopathy and from -1 to +11 (mean 6.8) in 33 children with coagulopathy (p = 0.087). ISS and GCS ranged from 4 to 57 (mean 28) and from 3 to 11 (mean 7.3), respectively, in the coagulopathy group, whereas in the group without coagulopathy, ISS score ranged from 4 to 41 (mean 20.5; p = 0.08) and GCS from 8 to 15 (mean 12.8; p = 0.01). SOFA ranged from 0 to 10 (mean 3.4) in children without coagulopathy and from 0 to 15 (mean 5.4) in the coagulopathy group (p = 0.002). Among 33 children with coagulopathy, 7 did not survive (21%), all with parenchymal brain damage, whereas all trauma patients without coagulopathy survived (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Acute coagulopathy is present on admission to the ED and is associated with injury severity and significantly higher mortality. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc.
    Journal of Emergency Medicine 09/2014; 47(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jemermed.2014.06.018 · 1.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective(s): Clinical research characterizing the mechanisms responsible for sex-based outcome differences postinjury remain conflicting. We sought to characterize an X chromosome-linked IRAK-1 (IL-1 receptor-associated kinase) polymorphism as an alternative mechanism responsible for sex differences postinjury. IRAK-1 is key intermediate in the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway thought to drive inflammation postinjury. Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed over a 24-month period. Bluntly injured patients requiring intensive care unit admission were enrolled, whereas patients with isolated brain and spinal cord injuries were excluded. Outcomes of interest included multiple organ failure (MOF, Marshall MOD score > 5) and mortality. Logistic regression was utilized to determine the independent risk of poor outcome associated with the IRAK-1 variant after controlling for important differences. Results: In an enrolled cohort of 321 patients, the IRAK-1 variant was common (12.5%). Patients with and without the variant were similar in age, injury severity, and 24hr blood transfusion. After controlling for important confounders, the IRAK1 variant was independently associated with more than eightfold (OR = 8.4, P = 0.005, 95% CI: 1.9-37.1) and 11-fold (OR = 11.8, P = 0.037, 95% CI: 1.1-121) greater risk of MOF and mortality, respectively. These differences were most prominent in men, whereas women heterozygous for the variant demonstrated worse outcome in a dose-dependent fashion. Conclusions: The IRAK1 polymorphism is a strong independent predictor of MOF and mortality postinjury and represents a common variant with prognostic potential. These data demonstrate the importance of TLR signaling postinjury and supports that a genetic mechanism may drive sex outcome differences postinjury.
    Annals of Surgery 10/2014; 260(4):698-705. DOI:10.1097/SLA.0000000000000918 · 7.19 Impact Factor