Reorganizing adult critical care delivery: the role of regionalization, telemedicine, and community outreach.
ABSTRACT Variation in the quality of critical care services across hospitals coupled with an emerging workforce crisis necessitates system-level change in the organization of intensive care. In this review, we evaluate three alternative organizational models that may expand access to high-quality critical care: tiered regionalization, intensive care unit telemedicine, and quality improvement through regional outreach. These models share a potential to increase survival and reduce costs. Yet there are also major barriers to implementation, including the lack of a strong evidence base and the need for significant upfront financial investment. Reorganization of intensive care will also require the support of all involved stakeholders: patients and their families, critical care practitioners, administrative and public health professionals, and policy makers. To varying degrees these models require a central authority to implement and regulate the system, as well as specific legislation, investment in information technology, and financial incentives for providers. The existing evidence does not strongly support exclusive use of a particular model, and creation of a hybrid model that integrates the three complementary approaches is a practical option. A potential framework for implementation involves triage guidelines developed by professional societies leading to demonstration projects and national legislation in support of optimal systems. Additional research is needed to determine the comparative effectiveness and cost implications of these approaches, with a goal of best matching high-quality critical care to patients' needs and professional preferences at the hospital, regional, and national level.
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ABSTRACT: Many individual Intensive Care Unit (ICU) characteristics have been associated with patient outcomes, including staffing, expertise, continuity and team structure. Separately, many aspects of clinical care in ICUs have been operationalized through the development of complex treatment protocols. The United State Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group-Critical Illness Outcomes Study (USCIITG-CIOS) was designed to determine whether the extent of protocol availability and use in ICUs is associated with hospital survival in a large cohort of United States ICUs. Here, we describe the study protocol and analysis plan approved by the USCIITG-CIOS Steering Committee. USCIITG-CIOS is a prospective, observational, ecological multi-centered "cohort" study of mixed ICUs in the U.S. The data collected include organizational information for the ICU (e.g., protocol availability and utilization, multi-disciplinary staffing assessment) and patient level information (e.g. demographics, acute and chronic medical conditions). The primary outcome is all-cause hospital mortality, with the objective being to determine whether there is an association between protocol number and hospital mortality for ICU patients. USCIITG-CIOS is powered to detect a 3% difference in crude hospital mortality between high and low protocol use ICUs, dichotomized according to protocol number at the median. The analysis will utilize regression modeling to adjust for outcome clustering by ICU, with secondary linear analysis of protocol number and mortality and a variety of a priori planned ancillary studies. There are presently 60 ICUs participating in USCIITG-CIOS to enroll approximately 6,000 study subjects. USCIITG-CIOS is a large multicentric study examining the effect of ICU protocol use on patient outcomes. The primary results of this study will inform our understanding of the relationship between protocol availability, use, and patient outcomes in the ICU. Moreover, given the shortage of intensivists worldwide, the results of USCIITG-CIOS can be used to promote more effective ICU and care team design and will impact the delivery of intensive care services beyond individual practitioners. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01109719.Open Access Journal of Clinical Trials 09/2011; 2011(3):55-65. DOI:10.2147/OAJCT.S24223
Article: The Tele-ICU.
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ABSTRACT: Detection of patient deterioration and triage (prioritization of care) are two critical tasks in the high risk environment and interdisciplinary care model of patients in an intensive care unit. To make decisions and plan treatments, clinicians need to observe, integrate, communicate, and understand a wide range of information from various devices located at the bedsides of multiple patients. However, several technological and physical limitations prevent them from optimally performing these tasks, which negatively impact the capabilities of healthcare teams. The Monitoring Messenger concept was developed to overcome some of these challenges by integrating information on a mobile device and supporting team decision-making and information exchange. Results from the initial phases of this project: requirements definition using Cognitive Work Analysis and rapid device prototyping are presented in this paper.2013 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC 2013); 10/2013