Article

Vesicular Glutamate Transport Promotes Dopamine Storage and Glutamate Corelease In Vivo

Departments of Physiology and Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.
Neuron (Impact Factor: 15.98). 03/2010; 65(5):643-56. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.02.012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play an important role in the motivational systems underlying drug addiction, and recent work has suggested that they also release the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. To assess a physiological role for glutamate corelease, we disrupted the expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 selectively in dopamine neurons. The conditional knockout abolishes glutamate release from midbrain dopamine neurons in culture and severely reduces their excitatory synaptic output in mesoaccumbens slices. Baseline motor behavior is not affected, but stimulation of locomotor activity by cocaine is impaired, apparently through a selective reduction of dopamine stores in the projection of VTA neurons to ventral striatum. Glutamate co-entry promotes monoamine storage by increasing the pH gradient that drives vesicular monoamine transport. Remarkably, low concentrations of glutamate acidify synaptic vesicles more slowly but to a greater extent than equimolar Cl(-), indicating a distinct, presynaptic mechanism to regulate quantal size.

2 Followers
 · 
115 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pauses in the tonic firing of striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs) emerge during reward-related learning in response to conditioning of a neutral cue. We have previously reported that augmenting the postsynaptic response to cortical afferents in CINs is coupled to the emergence of a cell-intrinsic afterhyperpolarization (AHP) underlying pauses in tonic activity. Here we investigated in a bihemispheric rat-brain slice preparation the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity of excitatory afferents to CINs and the association with changes in the AHP. We found that high frequency stimulation (HFS) of commissural corticostriatal afferents from the contralateral hemisphere induced a robust long-term depression (LTD) of postsynaptic potentials (PSP) in CINs. Depression of the PSP of smaller magnitude and duration was observed in response to HFS of the ipsilateral white matter or cerebral cortex. In Mg2+-free solution HFS induced NMDA receptor-dependent potentiation of the PSP, evident in both the maximal slope and amplitude of the PSP. The increase in maximal slope corroborates previous findings, and was blocked by antagonism of either D1-like dopamine receptors with SCH23390 or D2-like dopamine receptors with sulpiride during HFS in Mg2+-free solution. Potentiation of the slower PSP amplitude component was due to augmentation of the NMDA receptor-mediated potential as this was completely reversed on subsequent application of the NMDA receptor antagonist AP5. HFS similarly potentiated NMDA receptor currents isolated by blockade of AMPA/kainate receptors with CNQX. The plasticity-induced increase in the slow PSP component was directly associated with an increase in the subsequent AHP. Thus plasticity of cortical afferent synapses is ideally suited to influence the cue-induced firing dynamics of CINs, particularly through potentiation of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 04/2015; 9. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2015.00116 · 4.18 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The use of Cre-driver rodent lines for targeting ventral tegmental area (VTA) cell types has generated important and novel insights into how precise neurocircuits regulate physiology and behavior. While this approach generally results in enhanced cellular specificity, an important issue has recently emerged related to the selectivity and penetrance of viral targeting of VTA neurons using several Cre-driver transgenic mouse lines. Here, we highlight several considerations when utilizing these tools to study the function of genetically defined neurocircuits. While VTA dopaminergic neurons have previously been targeted and defined by the expression of single genes important for aspects of dopamine neurotransmission, many VTA and neighboring cells display dynamic gene expression phenotypes that are partially consistent with both classically described dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neurons. Thus, in addition to varying degrees of selectivity and penetrance, distinct Cre lines likely permit targeting of partially overlapping, but not identical VTA cell populations. This Matters Arising Response paper addresses the Lammel et al. (2015) Matters Arising paper, published concurrently in Neuron. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Neuron 01/2015; 85(2):439-45. DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.12.034 · 15.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mesoaccumbens fibers are thought to co-release dopamine and glutamate. However, the mechanism is unclear, and co-release by mesoaccumbens fibers has not been documented. Using electron microcopy, we found that some mesoaccumbens fibers have vesicular transporters for dopamine (VMAT2) in axon segments that are continuous with axon terminals that lack VMAT2, but contain vesicular glutamate transporters type 2 (VGluT2). In vivo overexpression of VMAT2 did not change the segregation of the two vesicular types, suggesting the existence of highly regulated mechanisms for maintaining this segregation. The mesoaccumbens axon terminals containing VGluT2 vesicles make asymmetric synapses, commonly associated with excitatory signaling. Using optogenetics, we found that dopamine and glutamate were released from the same mesoaccumbens fibers. These findings reveal a complex type of signaling by mesoaccumbens fibers in which dopamine and glutamate can be released from the same axons, but are not normally released at the same site or from the same synaptic vesicles.
    Nature Neuroscience 02/2015; DOI:10.1038/nn.3945 · 14.98 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
32 Downloads
Available from
May 30, 2014