The metabolic syndrome was initially described as an insulin-resistance syndrome characterized by the clustering of metabolic traits such as high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood pressure, abdominal obesity and different degrees of impaired glucose regulation. Although different definitions have been developed by various consensus groups, epidemiological studies demonstrate that they all associate the metabolic syndrome with a similar cardiometabolic risk, which is high for diabetes (ranging between three- and 20-fold), depending on the number of components and the inclusion of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance or both. The latter appear to indicate the failure of the beta cell to produce enough insulin to compensate for the increased demand due to insulin resistance. There is a hyperbolic relationship between insulin production and insulin sensitivity, which can be calculated by the disposition index. When this is altered there is a higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. There have been no clinical trials in subjects selected by the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, but structured lifestyle changes have been tested in people with impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance and have been able to reduce incident Type 2 diabetes by almost 50%, as long as a weight loss of at least 5% is achieved. Oral antidiabetic and anti-obesity drugs have also been successful to a lesser degree. Some fibrates have reduced or delayed incident diabetes. Extended-release niacin has a neutral effect and statins are controversial. ACE inhibitors and ARBs are the antihypertensive agents least associated with incident diabetes.
"The metabolic syndrome is the main risk factor for developing type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases [42,43]. The syndrome is characterized by the presence of at least three of five symptoms: central obesity, impaired glucose regulation, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia (increased triglyceridemia and low plasma HDL-c), and hypertension [44–47]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to determine, in a swine model of leptin resistance, the effects of type and timing of maternal malnutrition on growth patterns, adiposity and metabolic features of the progeny when exposed to an obesogenic diet during their juvenile development and possible concomitant effects of the offspring sex. Thus, four groups were considered. A CONTROL group involved pigs born from sows fed with a diet fulfilling their daily maintenance requirements for pregnancy. The treated groups involved the progeny of females fed with the same diet but fulfilling either 160% or 50% of pregnancy requirements during the entire gestation (OVERFED and UNDERFED, respectively) or 100% of requirements until Day 35 of pregnancy and 50% of such amount from Day 36 onwards (LATE-UNDERFED). OVERFED and UNDERFED offspring were more prone to higher corpulence and fat deposition from early postnatal stages, during breast-feeding; adiposity increased significantly when exposed to obesogenic diets, especially in females. The effects of sex were even more remarkable in LATE-UNDERFED offspring, which had similar corpulence to CONTROL piglets; however, females showed a clear predisposition to obesity. Furthermore, the three groups of pigs with maternal malnutrition showed evidences of metabolic syndrome and, in the case of individuals born from OVERFED sows, even of insulin resistance and the prodrome of type-2 diabetes. These findings support the main role of early nutritional programming in the current rise of obesity and associated diseases in ethnics with leptin resistance.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e78424. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078424 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Most individuals with metabolic syndrome have abdominal obesity and develop insulin resistance, therefore the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and pre-diabetes overlap
[7,8]. In addition, metabolic syndrome can be considered as a direct precursor state of diabetes mellitus type 2
[7,9] and cardiovascular diseases
[7,10]. Moreover, the efficacy of cardioprotective interventions (i.e. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Metabolic syndrome (coexisting visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension) is a prominent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, however, its effect on cardiac gene expression pattern is unclear. Therefore, we examined the possible alterations in cardiac gene expression pattern in male Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, a model of metabolic syndrome.
Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured at 6, 16, and 25 wk of age in male ZDF and lean control rats. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed at 16 and 25 wk of age. At week 25, total RNA was isolated from the myocardium and assayed by rat oligonucleotide microarray for 14921 genes. Expression of selected genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR.
Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly increased, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were impaired in ZDF rats compared to leans. In hearts of ZDF rats, 36 genes showed significant up-regulation and 49 genes showed down-regulation as compared to lean controls. Genes with significantly altered expression in the heart due to metabolic syndrome includes functional clusters of metabolism (e.g. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A synthase 2; argininosuccinate synthetase; 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate-coenzyme A ligase), structural proteins (e.g. myosin IXA; aggrecan1), signal transduction (e.g. activating transcription factor 3; phospholipase A2; insulin responsive sequence DNA binding protein-1) stress response (e.g. heat shock 70kD protein 1A; heat shock protein 60; glutathione S-transferase Yc2 subunit), ion channels and receptors (e.g. ATPase, (Na+)/K+ transporting, beta 4 polypeptide; ATPase, H+/K+ transporting, nongastric, alpha polypeptide). Moreover some other genes with no definite functional clusters were also changed such as e.g. S100 calcium binding protein A3; ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1; interleukin 18. Gene ontology analysis revealed several significantly enriched functional inter-relationships between genes influenced by metabolic syndrome.
Metabolic syndrome significantly alters cardiac gene expression profile which may be involved in development of cardiac pathologies in the presence of metabolic syndrome.
"Some have questioned if diagnosing metabolic syndrome is useful to patient care (Kahn et al., 2005; Anscombe et al., 2006). The presence of metabolic syndrome has been associated with a significant risk of cardiovascular disease (Mottillo et al., 2010), stroke (Gupta et al., 2010), and type 2 diabetes (Aschner, 2010). Obesity may also be a risk factor for migraine, especially chronic migraine. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Migraine and metabolic syndrome are highly prevalent and costly conditions. The two conditions coexist, but it is unclear what relationship may exist between the two processes. Metabolic syndrome involves a number of findings, including insulin resistance, systemic hypertension, obesity, a proinflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state. Only one study addresses migraine in metabolic syndrome, finding significant differences in the presentation of metabolic syndrome in migraineurs. However, controversy exists regarding the contribution of each individual risk factor to migraine pathogenesis and prevalence. It is unclear what treatment implications, if any, exist as a result of the concomitant diagnosis of migraine and metabolic syndrome. The cornerstone of migraine and metabolic syndrome treatments is prevention, relying heavily on diet modification, sleep hygiene, medication use, and exercise.
Frontiers in Neurology 11/2012; 3(article 161):161. DOI:10.3389/fneur.2012.00161
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