P450 Redox Enzymes in the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium: Gene Transcription, Heterologous Expression, and Activity Analysis on the Purified Proteins

Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA.
Current Microbiology (Impact Factor: 1.42). 03/2010; 61(4):306-14. DOI: 10.1007/s00284-010-9612-7
Source: PubMed


With an aim to understand the cytochrome P450 enzyme system in the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, here we report molecular characterization of its P450 redox proteins including the primary P450 oxidoreductase (POR) and two alternate P450 redox proteins cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) and cytochrome b5 reductase (cyt b5r) in terms of transcriptional regulation and heterologous expression. The transcript abundance followed the order POR > cyt b5r > cyt b5. Interestingly, the three genes showed an overall higher expression in the defined carbon-limited cultures with low nitrogen (LN) or high nitrogen (HN) versus the carbon-rich malt extract (ME) cultures. cDNA cloning and analysis revealed the following deduced protein characteristics: cyt b5 (238 amino acids, 25.38 kDa) and cyt b5r (321 amino acids, 35.52 kDa). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the cloned cyt b5 belongs to a novel class of fungal cyt b5-like proteins. The two proteins cyt b5 and cyt b5r were heterologously expressed in E. coli and purified using affinity-based purification in an active form. The POR was heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and was also purified in active form as evidenced by its cytochrome c reduction activity. This is the first report on cloning, heterologous expression, and purification of the alternate redox proteins cyt b5 and cyt b5r in E. coli and on yeast expression of POR from this model white rot fungus.

Download full-text


Available from: Jagjit S Yadav,

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fungi, particularly the white rot basidiomycetes, have an extraordinary capability to degrade and/or mineralize (to CO(2)) the recalcitrant fused-ring high molecular weight (4 aromatic-rings) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW PAHs). Despite over 30years of research demonstrating involvement of P450 monooxygenation reactions in fungal metabolism of HMW PAHs, specific P450 monooxygenases responsible for oxidation of these compounds are not yet known. Here we report the first comprehensive identification and functional characterization of P450 monooxygenases capable of oxidizing different ring-size PAHs in the model white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium using a successful genome-to-function strategy. In a genome-wide P450 microarray screen, we identified six PAH-responsive P450 genes (Pc-pah1-Pc-pah6) inducible by PAHs of varying ring size, namely naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Using a co-expression strategy, cDNAs of the six Pc-Pah P450s were cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris in conjunction with the homologous P450 oxidoreductase (Pc-POR). Each of the six recombinant P450 monooxygenases showed PAH-oxidizing activity albeit with varying substrate specificity towards PAHs (3-5 rings). All six P450s oxidized pyrene (4-ring) into two monohydroxylated products. Pc-Pah1 and Pc-Pah3 oxidized BaP (5-ring) to 3-hydroxyBaP whereas Pc-Pah4 and Pc-Pah6 oxidized phenanthrene (3-ring) to 3-, 4-, and 9-phenanthrol. These PAH-oxidizing P450s (493-547 aa) are structurally diverse and novel considering their low overall homology (12-23%) to mammalian counterparts. To our knowledge, this is the first report on specific fungal P450 monooxygenases with catalytic activity toward environmentally persistent and highly toxic HMW PAHs.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2010; 399(4):492-7. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.07.094 · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two central redox enzyme systems exist to reduce eukaryotic P450 enzymes, the P450 oxidoreductase (POR) and the cyt b₅ reductase-cyt b₅. In fungi, limited information is available for the cyt b(5) reductase-cyt b(5) system. Here we characterized the kinetic mechanism of (cyt b₅r)-cyt b₅ redox system from the model white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Pc) and made a quantitative comparison to the POR system. We determined that Pc-cyt b₅r followed a "ping-pong" mechanism and could directly reduce cytochrome c. However, unlike other cyt b₅ reductases, Pc-cyt b₅r lacked the typical ferricyanide reduction activity, a standard for cyt b₅ reductases. Through co-expression in yeast, we demonstrated that the Pc-cyt b₅r-cyt b₅ complex is capable of transferring electrons to Pc-P450 CYP63A2 for its benzo(a)pyrene monooxygenation activity and that the efficiency was comparable to POR. In fact, both redox systems supported oxidation of an estimated one-third of the added benzo(a)pyrene amount. To our knowledge, this is the first report to indicate that the cyt b₅r-cyt b₅ complex of fungi is capable of transferring electrons to a P450 monooxygenase. Furthermore, this is the first eukaryotic quantitative comparison of the two P450 redox enzyme systems (POR and cyt b₅r-cyt b₅) in terms of supporting a P450 monooxygenase activity.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 03/2011; 509(1):26-32. DOI:10.1016/j.abb.2011.02.023 · 3.02 Impact Factor
Show more