Practice Management Guidelines for Selective Nonoperative Management of Penetrating Abdominal Trauma
ABSTRACT : Although there is no debate that patients with peritonitis or hemodynamic instability should undergo urgent laparotomy after penetrating injury to the abdomen, it is also clear that certain stable patients without peritonitis may be managed without operation. The practice of deciding which patients may not need surgery after penetrating abdominal wounds has been termed selective management. This practice has been readily accepted during the past few decades with regard to abdominal stab wounds; however, controversy persists regarding gunshot wounds. Because of this, the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Practice Management Guidelines Committee set out to develop guidelines to analyze which patients may be managed safely without laparotomy after penetrating abdominal trauma. A secondary goal of this committee was to find which diagnostic adjuncts are useful in the determination of the need for surgical exploration.
: A search of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health MEDLINE database was performed using PubMed (www.pubmed.gov).
: The search retrieved English language articles concerning selective management of penetrating abdominal trauma and related topics from the years 1960 to 2007. These articles were then used to construct this set of practice management guidelines.
: Although the rate of nontherapeutic laparotomies after penetrating wounds to the abdomen should be minimized, this should never be at the expense of a delay in the diagnosis and treatment of injury. With this in mind, a routine laparotomy is not indicated in hemodynamically stable patients with abdominal stab wounds without signs of peritonitis or diffuse abdominal tenderness. Likewise, it is also not routinely indicated in stable patients with abdominal gunshot wounds if the wounds are tangential and there are no peritoneal signs. Abdominopelvic computed tomography should be considered in patients selected for initial nonoperative management to facilitate initial management decisions. The majority of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma managed nonoperatively may be discharged after 24 hours of observation in the presence of a reliable abdominal examination and minimal to no abdominal tenderness. Diagnostic laparoscopy may be considered as a tool to evaluate diaphragmatic lacerations and peritoneal penetration in an effort to avoid unnecessary laparotomy.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Michelle Holevar, Nov 17, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen has been used for 30 years to evaluate the stable blunt trauma patient. However, the early diagnosis of blunt hollow viscus injury (BHVI) remains a challenge. Delayed diagnosis and intervention of BHVI lead to significant morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to identify a combination of radiographic and clinical variables present at admission that could lead to earlier surgical intervention for BHVI. Significant predictors were identified through a retrospective review of all blunt trauma patients admitted to a Level 1 trauma center from 2005 to 2010 with an admission CT of the abdomen/pelvis and diagnosed with any mesenteric injury. The Bowel Injury Prediction Score (BIPS) was calculated based on the following three elements with a point given for each outcome: white blood cell count of 17.0 or greater, abdominal tenderness, and CT scan grade for mesenteric injury of 4 or higher. A total of 18,927 blunt trauma patients were admitted during the study period. Of these, 380 had a mesenteric injury, 110 met inclusion criteria, 60 had a surgical intervention, and 43 had BHVI. Of the 110 study patients, 43 (39%) had an immediate operation, 17 (16%) had a delayed operation (>4 hours), and 50 (46%) had no surgical intervention. The median BIPS for the immediate and delayed group was 2, while for the no-surgery group, the score was 0. Patients with a BIPS of 2 or greater were 19 times more likely to have a BHVI than patients with a BIPS of less than 2 (odds ratio, 19.2; 95% confidence interval, 6.78-54.36; p < 0.001). Three predictors (admission CT scan grade of mesenteric injury, white blood cell count, and abdominal tenderness) were used to create a new bowel injury score, with a score of 2 or greater being strongly associated with BHVI. Prospective validation of these retrospective findings is warranted to fully assess the accuracy of the BIPS. Prognostic study, level III.Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 01/2015; 78(1):105-11. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000471 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Penetrating abdomino-thoracic injuries are potentially life-threatening due to the associated haemorrhagic shock and visceral injury. The management of these injuries poses specific challenges in pre-hospital care, transport, and management strategies. We report a 35-year-old male having impalement injury of the left thorax and left upper arm with a metallic rod used for construction of the house after a fall from height. One rod penetrated thorax from left shoulder and exit point was present just above the iliac crest and second rod was seen piercing left upper arm. Patient was successfully managed without any intraoperative, post-operative surgical complications, neurological damage or permanent injuries.Indian journal of anaesthesia 11/2014; 58(6):742-5. DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.147172
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ABSTRACT: for SCIRP and the owner of the intel-lectual property Maha Yassin Omer et al. All Copyright © 2014 are guarded by law and by SCIRP as a guardian. ABSTRACT Background: The pattern and presentation of penetrating abdominal trauma vary according to places and the structure of the present health system. As well controversies in management exist ranging from mandatory ex-ploration to selective non-operative management. Objectives: To determine the pattern of penetrating abdominal trauma, current management practiced and outcome in Khartoum. Patients and Methods: The study was pros-pective, descriptive and hospital-based. It was carried out at the main three hospitals in Khartoum State. It was conducted over a period of one year from 2012 Mar to 2013 Mar. All patients who presented penetrating injury to their abdomen were included. Results: The study included 85 patients with a mean age of 28 years (SD ± 10). The male to female ratio was 11:1. Most of the patients (89.4%) were in the first four decades of their life. Twenty-three patients (27.1%) presented shock. Stab wound is the commonest mode of trauma seen in 83.5% of our patients. The majority of our patients were managed by exploratory laparotomy (81.2%), however 16 (18.8%) underwent conservative measures. Of the operated group, solid organ injuries were found in 22.9%, yet hollow viscous injuries were reported in 86.9% of the patients. Registrars operated on 78.26% of the patients. The rate of negative laparotomy of this study was 8.7%. Complications and mortality were encountered in 25.9% and 4.7% respectively. The mean hospital stay was 8.47 days (SD ± 10.6). Conclusion: This study demonstrates no difference in the pattern of intra-abdominal injuries. The rate of operative treatment is acceptable, but more laparotomies can be avoided if the haemodynamic stable patients without features of peritonitis were given a period of observation. The overall outcome was satisfactory.International Journal of Clinical Medicine 01/2014; 5(01):18-22. DOI:10.4236/ijcm.2014.51004