Cold agglutinin induced hemolysis in a newly diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus.
ABSTRACT Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a well-known autoimmune chronic inflammatory disease, which can virtually affect any organ system in the body. Although hemolytic anemia has been known to occur in <10% of SLE patients, they are usually mediated through warm antibodies. It is extremely rare to see cold antibody-mediated hemolytic anemia in SLE, and only few cases have been reported in literature to our knowledge. This is a unique case report of SLE associated with cold agglutinin hemolytic anemia in a patient presented with generalized tender lymphadenopathy and typical B-symptoms including fever, night sweats, and significant weight loss.
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ABSTRACT: Conventional therapies for primary chronic cold agglutinin disease (CAD) are ineffective, but remissions after treatment with the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab have been described in a small, prospective trial and in some case reports. In this study we report on 37 courses of rituximab administered prospectively to 27 patients. Fourteen of 27 patients responded to their first course of rituximab, and 6 of 10 responded to re-treatment. In both groups combined, responses were achieved after 20 of 37 courses, giving an overall response rate of 54%. We observed 1 complete and 19 partial responses. Two nonresponders and 3 patients who experienced relapse received second-line therapy with interferon-alpha combined with a new course of rituximab, and 1 nonresponder and 2 patients who experienced relapse achieved partial responses. Responders achieved a median increase in hemoglobin levels of 40 g/L (4 g/dL). Median time to response was 1.5 months, and median observed response duration was 11 months. We conclude that rituximab is an effective and well-tolerated therapy for CAD. Histologic and flow cytometric findings suggest that some of the effect may be mediated by mechanisms other than the elimination of clonal lymphocytes. We were unable to predict responses from the hematologic, immunologic, or histologic parameters before therapy.Blood 05/2004; 103(8):2925-8. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We studied clinical and immunological characteristics of 15 patients with chronic cold agglutinin disease (CAD). Mean age at disease debut was 68 years for female and 67 years for male patients. The patients had no signs of other autoimmune diseases. All patients had V(H)4-34 encoded IgM kappa cold agglutinins (CA) in high titre. In five patients IgM increased significantly with advancing disease. Seven patients had reduced concentrations of lymphocytes, largely of CD4 and CD8 T cells. Percentages of NK cells (CD56) and B cells (CD19) were increased in seven and three patients, respectively. In six out of nine patients a clonal expansion of kappa positive B cells was found. Serum C3 was decreased in nine patients and C4 was decreased in 11 patients, six of whom had reduced CH50. Such data indicate that patients with CAD experience a continuous low-grade complement consumption. Five patients had experienced increased haemolysis during infections. After addition of active complement to patient sera in vitro, six sera showed increased haemolytic activity. Our results indicate that some patients with CAD have a relative deficit of complement in their serum and that an increase of complement production occurs during an acute phase reaction which enhances haemolysis. Our data also indicate that both CA titre and thermal amplitude are important characteristics when predicting complement activation and clinical course in CAD.European Journal Of Haematology 11/1999; 63(4):259-66. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic cold agglutinin disease (CAD) is a subgroup of autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Primary CAD has traditionally been defined by the absence of any underlying or associated disease. The results of therapy with corticosteroids, alkylating agents and interferon-alpha have been poor. Cold reactive immunoglobulins against erythrocyte surface antigens are essential to pathogenesis of CAD. These cold agglutinins are monoclonal, usually IgMkappa autoantibodies with heavy chain variable regions encoded by the V(H)4-34 gene segment. By flowcytometric and immunohistochemical assessments, a monoclonal CD20+kappa+B-lymphocyte population has been demonstrated in the bone marrow of 90% of the patients, and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma is a frequent finding. Novel attempts at treatment for primary CAD have mostly been directed against the clonal B-lymphocytes. Phase 2 studies have shown that therapy with the chimeric anti-CD20 antibody rituximab produced partial response rates of more than 50% and occasional complete responses. Median response duration, however, was only 11 months. In this review, we discuss the clinical and pathogenetic features of primary CAD, emphasizing the more recent data on its close association with clonal lymphoproliferative bone marrow disorders and implications for therapy. We also review the management and outline some perspectives on new therapy modalities.Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 11/2007; 12(5):361-70. · 1.33 Impact Factor