May Toxoplasma gondii increase suicide attempt-preliminary results in Turkish subjects?
ABSTRACT Suicide attempts are one of the risk factors of suicide. Possible mechanisms by which Toxoplasma gondii may affect human behavior and it may also cause humans to attempt suicide. The aim of this study is to find out whether or not T. gondii is one of the reasons in suicide attempts. We investigated the sero-positivity level for anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in subjects who have attempted to suicide to find out whether there is a probable relationship between T. gondii and suicide attempts. In our study, we selected 200 cases of suicide attempts and 200 healthy volunteers. The sero-positivity level for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies among suicide attempts (41%) was significantly higher than the control group (28%). This signifies that there might be a causal relationship between toxoplasmosis and the etiology of suicide attempt.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Latent chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), a common neurotropic pathogen, has been previously linked with suicidal self-directed violence (SSDV). We sought to determine if latent infection with T gondii is associated with trait aggression and impulsivity, intermediate phenotypes for suicidal behavior, in psychiatrically healthy adults. Methods: Traits of aggression and impulsivity were analyzed in relationship to IgG antibody seropositivity for T gondii and two other latent neurotropic infections, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). One thousand community-residing adults residing in the Munich metropolitan area with no Axis I or II conditions by SCID for DSM-IV (510 men, 490 women, mean age 53.6 +/- 15.8, range 20-74). Plasma samples were tested for IgG antibodies to T. gondii, HSV-1 and CMV by ELISA. Self-reported ratings of trait aggression scores (Questionnaire for Measuring Factors of Aggression [FAF]) and trait impulsivity (Sensation-Seeking Scale-V [SSS-V]) were analyzed using linear multivariate methods. Results: T gondii IgG seropositivity was significantly associated with higher trait reactive aggression scores among women (p < .01), but not among men. T. gondii-positivity was also associated with higher impulsive sensation-seeking (SSS-V Disinhibition) among younger men (p < .01) aged 20-59 years old (median age = 60). All associations with HSV-1 and CMV were not significant. Conclusions: Aggression and impulsivity, personality traits considered as endophenotypes for SSDV, are associated with latent T gondii infection in a gender and age-specific manner, and could be further investigated as prognostic and treatment targets in 7: gondii-positive individuals at risk for SSDV. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Journal of Psychiatric Research 09/2014; 60. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.09.019 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Toxoplasma gondii infection has been associated with psychiatric diseases. However, there is no information about the link between this infection and patients with mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use. Methods We performed a case-control study with 149 psychiatric patients suffering from mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use and 149 age- and gender-matched control subjects of the general population. We searched for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies in the sera of participants by means of commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassays. Seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics in psychiatric patients was also investigated. Results Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were present in 15 (10.1%) of 149 cases and in 14 (9.4%) of 149 controls (P = 1.0). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 11 (7.4%) of the 149 cases and in 16 (10.7%) of the 149 controls (P = 0.31). No association of T. gondii exposure with socio-demographic characteristics of patients was found. Multivariate analysis of clinical and behavioral characteristics of cases showed that T. gondii seropositivity was positively associated with consumption of opossum meat (OR = 10.78; 95% CI: 2.16-53.81; P = 0.003) and soil flooring at home (OR = 11.15; 95% CI: 1.58-78.92; P = 0.01), and negatively associated with suicidal ideation (OR = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.05-0.64; P = 0.008). Conclusions Mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use do not appear to represent an increased risk for T. gondii exposure. This is the first report of a positive association of T. gondii exposure with consumption of opossum meat. Further studies to elucidate the role of T. gondii infection in suicidal ideation and behavior are needed to develop optimal strategies for the prevention of infection with T. gondii.BMC Infectious Diseases 04/2015; 15. DOI:10.1186/s12879-015-0912-1 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Toxoplasmosis is becoming a global health hazard as it infects 30-50% of the world human population. Clinically, the life-long presence of the parasite in tissues of a majority of infected individuals is usually considered asymptomatic. However, a number of studies show that this 'asymptomatic infection' may also lead to development of other human pathologies. The purpose of the study was to collect available geoepidemiological data on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and search for its relationship with mortality and disability rates in different countries. Prevalence data published between 1995-2008 for women in child-bearing age were collected for 88 countries (29 European). The association between prevalence of toxoplasmosis and specific disease burden estimated with age-standardized Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) or with mortality, was calculated using General Linear Method with Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP), geolatitude and humidity as covariates, and also using nonparametric partial Kendall correlation test with GDP as a covariate. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with specific disease burden in particular countries explaining 23% of variability in disease burden in Europe. The analyses revealed that for example, DALY of 23 of 128 analyzed diseases and disease categories on the WHO list showed correlations (18 positive, 5 negative) with prevalence of toxoplasmosis and another 12 diseases showed positive trends (p<0.1). For several obtained significant correlations between the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and specific diseases/clinical entities, possible pathophysiological, biochemical and molecular explanations are presented. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with various disease burden. Statistical associations does not necessarily mean causality. The precautionary principle suggests however that possible role of toxoplasmosis as a triggering factor responsible for development of several clinical entities deserves much more attention and financial support both in everyday medical practice and future clinical research.PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e90203. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090203 · 3.53 Impact Factor