In vitro immunomodulatory activity of Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 and Lactobacillus salivarius CECT5713: two probiotic strains isolated from human breast milk.
ABSTRACT Commensal bacteria, including some species of lactobacilli commonly present in human breast milk, appear to colonize the neonatal gut and contribute to protection against infant infections, suggesting that lactobacilli could potentially modulate immunity. In this study, we evaluated the potential of two Lactobacillus strains isolated from human milk to modulate the activation and cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subsets in vitro. Moreover, these effects were compared to the same probiotic species of non-milk origin. Lactobacillus salivarius CECT5713 and Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 at 10⁵, 10⁶ and 10⁷ bacteria/mL were co-cultured with PBMC (10⁶/mL) from 8 healthy donors for 24 h. Activation status (CD69 and CD25 expressions) of natural killer (NK) cells (CD56+), total T cells (CD3+), cytotoxic T cells (CD8+) and CD4+ T cells was determined by flow cytometry. Regulatory T cells (Treg) were also quantified by intracellular Foxp3 evaluation. Regarding innate immunity, NK cells were activated by addition of both Lactobacillus strains, and in particular, the CD8+ NK subset was preferentially induced to highly express CD69 (~90%, p<0.05). With respect to acquired immunity, approximately 9% of CD8+ T cells became activated after co-cultivation with L. fermentum or L salivarius. Although CD4+ T cells demonstrated a weaker response, there was a preferential activation of Treg cells (CD4+CD25+Foxp3+) after exposure to both milk probiotic bacteria (p<0.05). Both strains significantly induced the production of a number of cytokines and chemokines, including TNFα, IL-1β, IL-8, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and GM-CSF, but some strain-specific effects were apparent. This work demonstrates that L salivarius CECT5713 and L. fermentum CECT5716 enhanced both natural and acquired immune responses, as evidenced by the activation of NK and T cell subsets and the expansion of Treg cells, as well as the induction of a broad array of cytokines.
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ABSTRACT: Probiotics are beneficial microbes that confer a realistic health benefit on the host, which in combination with prebiotics, (indigestible dietary fibre/carbohydrate), also confer a health benefit on the host via products resulting from anaerobic fermentation. There is a growing body of evidence documenting the immune-modulatory ability of probiotic bacteria, it is therefore reasonable to suggest that this is potentiated via a combination of prebiotics and probiotics as a symbiotic mix. The need for probiotic formulations has been appreciated for the health benefits in "topping up your good bacteria" or indeed in an attempt to normalise the dysbiotic microbiota associated with immunopathology. This review will focus on the immunomodulatory role of probiotics and prebiotics on the cells, molecules and immune responses in the gut mucosae, from epithelial barrier to priming of adaptive responses by antigen presenting cells: immune fate decision-tolerance or activation? Modulation of normal homeostatic mechanisms, coupled with findings from probiotic and prebiotic delivery in pathological studies, will highlight the role for these xenobiotics in dysbiosis associated with immunopathology in the context of inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and hypersensitivity.Nutrients 01/2013; 5(6):1869-912. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lactobacillus species are probiotics proven to exhibit various preventative as well as therapeutic properties. While lactobacillus species have been implicated in the formation of dental caries, endocarditis and bacteremia, their role as pathogens in cholecystitis has not been reported. We present a rare case of Lactobacillus fermentum working as a pathogen in cholecystitis. An 81-year old male was admitted with right upper quadrant abdominal pain. His signs, symptoms, laboratory values and imaging were consistent with a diagnosis of cholecystitis with ascending cholangitis. In view of his co-morbidity and severe sepsis, the patient was treated non-operatively with antibiotics and cholecystostomy. L. fermentum, which was vancomycin resistant, was identified from the cholecystostomy aspirate and from anaerobic blood culture. The patient went into septic shock, developed multi-organ dysfunction syndrome and eventually died. Commensal bacteria such as L. fermentum are known to modulate immunity, reduce the pathogenicity of gastrointestinal organisms and play a therapeutic role in various disease processes. We isolated L. fermentum as a pathogen in a documented case of cholecystitis with ascending cholangitis. While the routine use lactobacillus species as a probiotic is supported in the literature, understanding its potential role as a pathogen may allow more judicious use of these bacteria and encourage research to elucidate the pathogenicity of lactobacillus species.International journal of surgery case reports. 05/2013; 4(8):662-664.
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ABSTRACT: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) antimicrobial peptides typically exhibit antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens, as well as spoilage bacteria. Therefore, they have attracted the greatest attention as tools for food biopreservation. In some countries LAB are already extensively used as probiotics in food processing and preservation. LAB derived bacteriocins have been utilized as oral, topical antibiotics or disinfectants. Lactobacillus salivarius is a promising probiotic candidate commonly isolated from human, porcine, and avian gastrointestinal tracts (GIT), many of which are producers of unmodified bacteriocins of sub-classes IIa, IIb and IId. It is a well-characterized bacteriocin producer and probiotic organism. Bacteriocins may facilitate the introduction of a producer into an established niche, directly inhibit the invasion of competing strains or pathogens, or modulate the composition of the microbiota and influence the host immune system. This review gives an up-to-date overview of all L. salivarius strains, isolated from different origins, known as bacteriocin producing and/or potential probiotic.Food Microbiology 12/2013; 36(2):296-304. · 3.41 Impact Factor