Robotic treadmill training improves cardiovascular function in spinal cord injury patients.
ABSTRACT Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) assisted with a robotic driven gait orthosis (DGO) is an emerging tool in rehabilitating patients with lost sensorimotor function. Few information about the effects of BWSTT on cardiovascular system are available. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of BWSTT on: 1) left ventricular (LV) systo-diastolic function; 2) coronary flow reserve (CFR); 3) endothelial function in patients with lost sensorimotor function due to neurologic lesions.
Fourteen adults (males 10, age 50.6±17.1years) with motor incomplete spinal cord injuries (SCI) due to trauma or spondylotic diseases underwent standard echocardiographic examination, non invasive assessment of CFR by dipyridamole stress echo and determination of plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels at baseline and after 6weeks of BWSTT.
At post training evaluation we observed lower LV end-diastolic (P=0.0164) and end-systolic volumes (P=0.0029) with increased ejection fraction (EF) (P=0.0266). We also observed a LV interventricular septum (IVS) (P=0.00469) increase. At the same time, we detected an improvement of LV diastolic function as witnessed by the reduction of isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) (P=0.0404) and deceleration time (DT) (P=0.0405) with an increased E/A ratio (P=0.0040). Improved CFR (P=0.020) and reduced plasma ADMA levels (P=0.0005) have been observed too, in association with a reduction of the inflammatory status (C-reactive protein (CRP) (P=0.0022) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (P=0.0005)).
For the first time, this study demonstrated that 6weeks of BWSTT improved not only the sensorimotor function but also systo-diastolic LV function, CFR and endothelial dysfunction associated with a reduction of the inflammatory status in patients with incomplete SCI.
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ABSTRACT: To assess the effect of an intervention combining body weight support (BWS), functional electric stimulation (FES), and treadmill training on overground walking speed (OGWS), treadmill walking speed, speed and distance, and lower extremity motor scores (LEMS). Before and after comparison. Miami Project to Cure Paralysis. Nineteen subjects with American Spinal Injury Association class C injury who were at least 1 year postinjury and had asymmetrical lower extremity function. Subjects trained 1.5 hours per day, 3 days per week, for 3 months. The training consisted of body weight-supported treadmill walking assisted by electric stimulation. Stimulation was applied to common peroneal nerve of the weaker lower extremity (LE) and timed to assist with the swing phase of the step cycle. OGWS in the absence of both BWS and FES; LEMS, and treadmill training parameters of speed and distance. Over the course of training, there was a significant increase in OGWS (from.12 +/- 0.8m/s to .21 +/- .15m/s, p = .0008), treadmill walking speed (from .23 +/- .12m/s to.49 +/- .20m/s, p = .00003), and treadmill walking distance (from 93 +/- 84m to 243 +/- 139m, p = .000001). The median LEMS increased significantly for both the stimulated and nonstimulated leg (from 8 to 11 in the FES-assisted leg, from 15 to 18 in the nonassisted leg, p < .005 for each). All subjects showed improvement in OGWS and overall LE strength. Further research is required to delineate the essential elements of these particular training strategies.Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 06/2001; 82(6):818-24. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The national objectives in Healthy People 2000, drafted by health professionals aware of currently available public health interventions, represent a wealth of information about near-term future mortality and morbidity. Life table methods were used to calculate the impact of projected changes in mortality and activity limitation rates on life expectancy and expected disability years. Meeting the mortality objectives would increase life expectancy at birth by 1.5 to 2.1 years, raising life expectancy to 76.6 to 77.2 years. In addition, meeting the target for disability from chronic conditions would increase the number of years of life without activity limitations from 66.8 years to 69.3-69.7 years. If the targets for coronary heart disease and unintentional injury were changed to reflect recent trends, a greater improvement in life expectancy at birth would be achieved: from 1.8 to 2.7 years to 76.9 to 77.8 years. Meeting the targets would have an important demographic impact. Including changes in the coronary heart disease and injuries targets, life expectancy in the year 2000 would be above the middle of the ranges used in current Census Bureau projections.American Journal of Public Health 12/1991; 81(11):1456-65. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition has been shown to improve clinical myocardial ischemia in patients with syndrome X (angina pectoris, positive treadmill exercise test, normal coronary angiograms, and no evidence of coronary spasm). This study was conducted to investigate the effects of long-term ACE inhibitors on endothelial nitric oxide (NO) metabolism and coronary microvascular function in patients with syndrome X. After a 2-week washout period, 20 patients with syndrome X were randomized to receive either enalapril, an ACE inhibitor, 5 mg twice daily (n = 10) or placebo (n = 10) in a double-blind design for 8 weeks. Another 6 age- and gender-matched subjects with negative treadmill exercise tests were also studied as controls. Compared with control subjects, patients with syndrome X had significantly reduced coronary flow reserve, reduced plasma levels of nitrate and nitrite (NOx), and a reduced plasma L-arginine to asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) ratio (an index of systemic NO metabolism), as well as reduced endothelial function. These patients also had increased plasma levels of ADMA, which is an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase and of von Willebrand factor, a marker of endothelial injury. Baseline characteristics including exercise performance and coronary flow reserve were similar between enalapril and placebo groups. After an 8-week treatment period, exercise duration (p = 0.001) and coronary flow reserve (p = 0.001) significantly improved with enalapril but not with placebo. Enalapril treatment, but not placebo, reduced plasma von Willebrand factor (p = 0.03) and ADMA levels (p = 0.01) and increased NOx levels (p = 0.01) and the ratio of L-arginine to ADMA (p <0.01). In patients with syndrome X, the plasma NOx level was positively and ADMA level inversely correlated with coronary flow reserve before and after the treatment. In conclusion, long-term ACE inhibitor treatment with enalapril improved coronary microvascular function as well as myocardial ischemia in patients with syndrome X. This may be related to the improvement of endothelial NO bioavailability with the reduction of plasma ADMA levels.The American Journal of Cardiology 11/2002; 90(9):974-82. · 3.21 Impact Factor