State of the art and recommendations. Kangaroo mother care: application in a high-tech environment.

Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Acta Paediatrica (Impact Factor: 1.84). 03/2010; 99(6):812-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2010.01794.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Since Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) was developed in Colombia in the 1970s, two trends in clinical application emerged. In low income settings, the original KMC model is implemented. This consists of continuous (24 h/day, 7 days/week) and prolonged mother/parent-infant skin-to-skin contact; early discharge with the infant in the kangaroo position; (ideally) exclusive breastfeeding; and, adequate follow-up. In affluent settings, intermittent KMC with sessions of one or a few hours skin-to-skin contact for a limited period is common. As a result of the increasing evidence of the benefits of KMC for both infants and families in all intensive care settings, KMC in a high-tech environment was chosen as the topic for the first European Conference on KMC, and the clinical implementation of the KMC model in all types of settings was discussed at the 7th International Workshop on KMC. Kangaroo Mother Care protocols in high-tech Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) should specify criteria for initiation, kangaroo position, transfer to/from KMC, transport in kangaroo position, kangaroo nutrition, parents' role, modification of the NICU environment, performance of care in KMC, and KMC in case of infant instability. CONCLUSION: Implementation of the original KMC method, with continuous skin-to-skin contact whenever possible, is recommended for application in high-tech environments, although scientific evaluation should continue.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim: To evaluate the effects of almost continuous skin-to-skin contact (SSC) on salivary cortisol, parental stress, parental depression, and breastfeeding. Study design: This is a randomised study engaging families of late preterm infants (32–35 weeks gestation). Salivary cortisol reactivity was measured in infants during a nappy change at one month corrected age, and in infants and mothers during still-face at four month corrected age. Both parents completed the Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ) at one month and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at one and four months. Ainsworth's sensitivity scale was used to control for parental sensitivity. Subjects: Thirty-seven families from two different neonatal care units in Sweden, randomised to either almost continuous SSC or standard care (SC). Results: Infants randomised to SSC had a lower salivary cortisol reactivity at one month (p=0.01). There was a correlation between themothers' and the preterminfants' salivary cortisol levels at four months in the SSC group (ρ=0.65, p=0.005), but not in the SC group (ρ=0.14, p=0.63). Fathers in SSC scored lower on the SPSQ subscale spouse relationship problems compared to fathers in SC (p b 0.05). Conclusions: Almost continuous SSC decreases infants' cortisol reactivity in response to handling, improves the concordance between mothers' and infants' salivary cortisol levels, and decreases fathers' experiences of spouse relationship problems.
    Early Human Development 01/2015; 91(1):63-70. DOI:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2014.12.005 · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: State-of-the-art Newborn Intensive Care Units (NICUs), instrumental in the survival of high-risk and ever-earlier-born preterm infants, often have costly human repercussions. The developmental sequelae of newborn intensive care are largely misunderstood. Developed countries eager to export their technologies must also transfer the knowledge-base that encompasses all high-risk and preterm infants' personhood as well as the neuro-essential importance of their parents. Without such understanding, the best medical care, while assuring survival jeopardizes infants' long-term potential and deprives parents of their critical role. Exchanging the womb for the NICU environment at a time of rapid brain growth compromises preterm infants' early development, which results in long-term physical and mental health problems and developmental disabilities. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) aims to prevent the iatrogenic sequelae of intensive care and to maintain the intimate connection between parent and infant, one expression of which is Kangaroo Mother Care. NIDCAP embeds the infant in the natural parent niche, avoids over-stimulation, stress, pain, and isolation while it supports self-regulation, competence, and goal orientation. Research demonstrates that NIDCAP improves brain development, functional competence, health, and life quality. It is cost effective, humane, and ethical, and promises to become the standard for all NICU care.
  • Source

Full-text (4 Sources)

Available from
May 27, 2014