Rapid activation of platelets at sites of vascular injury is a critical event in thrombosis and hemostasis. Here, we review recent findings, which (a) identified CalDAG-GEFI (RasGRP2) at the nexus of the rapid Ca(2+)-dependent platelet activation, (b) demonstrated a complex synergy between signaling provided by CalDAG-GEFI, protein kinase C and the Gi-coupled receptor for ADP, P2Y12, and (c) suggested CalDAG-GEFI as a novel target for anti-platelet therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelets are highly specialized blood cells critically involved in hemostasis and thrombosis. Members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family have established roles in regulating platelet function and thrombosis, but the molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. In particular, the conventional PKC isoform, PKCα, is a major regulator of platelet granule secretion, but the molecular pathway from PKCα to secretion is not defined. Protein kinase D (PKD) is a family of 3 kinases activated by PKC, which may represent a step in the PKC signaling pathway to secretion. In the present study, we show that PKD2 is the sole PKD member regulated downstream of PKC in platelets, and that the conventional, but not novel, PKC isoforms provide the upstream signal. Platelets from a gene knock-in mouse in which 2 key phosphorylation sites in PKD2 have been mutated (Ser707Ala/Ser711Ala) show a significant reduction in agonist-induced dense granule secretion, but not in α-granule secretion. This deficiency in dense granule release was responsible for a reduced platelet aggregation and a marked reduction in thrombus formation. Our results show that in the molecular pathway to secretion, PKD2 is a key component of the PKC-mediated pathway to platelet activation and thrombus formation through its selective regulation of dense granule secretion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytosolic calcium concentration is a critical regulator of platelet activation, and so platelet Ca(2+) signaling must be tightly controlled. Thrombin-induced Ca(2+) signaling is enhanced by inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), suggesting that PKC negatively regulates the Ca(2+) signal, although the mechanisms by which this occurs and its physiological relevance are still unclear.
To investigate the mechanisms by which PKC inhibitors enhance thrombin-induced Ca(2+) signaling, and to determine the importance of this pathway in platelet activation.
Cytosolic Ca(2+) signaling was monitored in fura-2-loaded human platelets. Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, a marker of platelet procoagulant activity, was measured by annexin V binding and flow cytometry.
PKC inhibition by bisindolylmaleimide-I (BIM-I) enhanced α-thrombin-induced Ca(2+) signaling in a concentration-dependent manner. PAR1 signaling, activated by SFLLRN, was enhanced much more strongly than PAR4, activated by AYPGKF or γ-thrombin, which is a potent PAR4 agonist but a poor activator of PAR1. BIM-I had little effect on α-thrombin-induced signaling following treatment with the PAR1 antagonist, SCH-79797. BIM-I enhanced Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores and Ca(2+) entry, as assessed by Mn(2+) quench. However, the plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase inhibitor, 5(6)-carboxyeosin, did not prevent the effect of BIM-I. PKC inhibition strongly enhanced α-thrombin-induced PS exposure, which was reversed by blockade of PAR1.
Together, these data show that when PAR1 is stimulated, PKC negatively regulates Ca(2+) release and Ca(2+) entry, which leads to reduced platelet PS exposure.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 06/2011; 9(8):1599-607. DOI:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2011.04393.x · 5.72 Impact Factor
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