Nanoparticle Technologies for Cancer Therapy

Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Biomaterials and Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Handbook of experimental pharmacology 01/2010; 197(197):55-86. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-00477-3_2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nanoparticles as drug delivery systems enable unique approaches for cancer treatment. Over the last two decades, a large number of nanoparticle delivery systems have been developed for cancer therapy, including organic and inorganic materials. Many liposomal, polymer-drug conjugates, and micellar formulations are part of the state of the art in the clinics, and an even greater number of nanoparticle platforms are currently in the preclinical stages of development. More recently developed nanoparticles are demonstrating the potential sophistication of these delivery systems by incorporating multifunctional capabilities and targeting strategies in an effort to increase the efficacy of these systems against the most difficult cancer challenges, including drug resistance and metastatic disease. In this chapter, we will review the available preclinical and clinical nanoparticle technology platforms and their impact for cancer therapy.

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Available from: Frank Alexis, Sep 25, 2015
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    • "Currently, researchers are pursuing the development of new tools and therapeutic strategies to provide more effective therapies against cancers including triplenegative breast cancers. Recent advances in nanomedicine , a multidisciplinary field that involves the application of nanomaterials in medicine and healthcare, offer a promising alternative for cancer treatment (Farrell et al. 2010; Alexis et al. 2010; Sahoo et al. 2007). Due to their small size and the fact that they can be easily modified, nanomaterials demonstrate significant advantages in gaining access to cancer cells, by either passive or active targeting. "
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Recent advances in nanomedicine have shown that gold nanorods (AuNRs), as multifunctional drug delivery and photothermal therapeutic agents, have potential for use in cancer therapy. However, the effect of AuNRs on the transcriptome of breast cancer cells is unknown. In the present study, cells of the triple-negative human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, which has high metastatic activity, were treated with AuNRs for transcriptomic analysis using RNA-seq technology. In total, 3126 genes were found to be up-regulated and 3558 genes were found to be down-regulated in AuNR-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. These differentially expressed genes presumably take part in multiple biological pathways, including glycolysis and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, and impact a variety of cellular functions, including chemoattractant activity. The distinct gene expression profile of MDA-MB-231 cells treated with AuNRs provides a foundation for further screening and validation of important genes involved in the interaction between AuNRs and MDA-MB-231 cells.
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    • "Nanoparticles and their potential application as drug delivery systems for pharmaceuticals have been extensively studied [1] [2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lyophilisomes are a novel class of proteinaceous biodegradable nano/microparticle capsules developed for tumor drug delivery. The in vivo characteristics of lyophilisomes are unknown and, therefore, the time course of biodistribution of sized albumin-based lyophilisomes in CD1 mice after intravenous administration was studied. Lyophilisomes, prepared from Dylight680-labeled albumin, were sized using a sucrose gradient centrifugation methodology and four fractions with a mean size of approximately 200 nm, 400 nm, 550 nm, and 650 nm were pooled for in/ex vivo localization, (immuno)histochemistry and biochemical analysis. Lyophilisomes were rapidly taken out of the circulation by the liver and spleen. Immunohistochemistry revealed that lyophilisomes were taken up in the liver by F4/80 positive macrophages, and in the spleen by Sign-R1 positive macrophages specifically located in the marginal zones. Lyophilisomes were most likely degraded by the liver and spleen and subsequently excreted via the urine, as high levels of degraded Dylight680-labeled albumin were detected in the urine. This was corroborated by electron microscopy of the spleen, which showed intact lyophilisomes in the marginal zone 5 and 30 min after injection, but not after 2 h. In conclusion, i.v. injected lyophilisomes are rapidly entrapped by liver and splenic macrophages, biodegraded, and excreted in the urine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 05/2015; 94. DOI:10.1016/j.ejpb.2015.04.020 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    • "Nanostructures (Table 2) can also be designed to carry useful payloads that include low molecular weight chemotherapy agents or contrast agents.150,151 Moreover, the newly formed structures are able to rapidly detect cancer cells, load multiple anticancer agents on their surface, and deliver the drugs rapidly at the target cell,152–154 while preventing their bioactive cargo degradation when the investigator chooses to use an RNA-based approach. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles have displayed considerable promise for safely delivering therapeutic agents with miscellaneous therapeutic properties. Current progress in nanotechnology has put forward, in the last few years, several therapeutic strategies that could be integrated into clinical use by using constructs for molecular diagnosis, disease detection, cytostatic drug delivery, and nanoscale immunotherapy. In the hope of bringing the concept of nanopharmacology toward a viable and feasible clinical reality in a cancer center, the present report attempts to present the grounds for the use of cell-free nanoscale structures for molecular therapy in experimental hematology and oncology.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 07/2014; 9(1):3465-3479. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S60488 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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