Very important pharmacogene summary: ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein)

Department of Genetics, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California 94305-5120, USA.
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics (Impact Factor: 3.45). 03/2011; 21(3):152-61. DOI: 10.1097/FPC.0b013e3283385a1c
Source: PubMed
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    • "Tri-allelic G2677TA nonsynonymous polymorphism has been also widely reported, since its variants are known to induce amino acid modification (Ala893 to Ser/ Thr893) (Leschziner et al., 2007). This polymorphism is also known to affect P-GP functionality (Hodges et al., 2011). Despite functional studies, investigations focusing on the influence of P-GP polymorphisms and the risk of depression are scarce and have only been conducted in Asian (Qian et al., 2006; Fujii et al., 2012) and Mexican American patients (Dong et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent disorder, which has been associated with an abnormal response of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Reports have argued that an abnormal HPA axis response can be due to an altered P-Glycoprotein (P-GP) function. This argument suggests that genetic polymorphisms in ABCB1 may have an effect on the HPA axis activity; however, it is still not clear if this influences the risk of MDD. Our study aims to evaluate the effect of ABCB1 C1236T, G2677TA and C3435T genetic polymorphisms on MDD risk in a subset of Portuguese patients. DNA samples from 80 MDD patients and 160 control subjects were genotyped using TaqMan(®) SNP Genotyping assays. A significant protection for MDD males carrying the T allele was observed (C1236T: odds ratio (OR)=0.360, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.140-0.950], p=0.022; C3435T: OR=0.306, 95% CI: [0.096-0.980], p=0.042; and G2677TA: OR=0.300, 95% CI: [0.100-0.870], p=0.013). Male Portuguese individuals carrying the 1236T/2677T/3435T haplotype had nearly 70% less risk of developing MDD (OR=0.313, 95% CI: [0.118-0.832], p=0.016, FDR p=0.032). No significant differences were observed regarding the overall subjects. Our results suggest that genetic variability of the ABCB1 is associated with MDD development in male Portuguese patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in Caucasian samples to analyze the effect of these ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms on MDD risk.
    Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers 11/2013; 18(1). DOI:10.1089/gtmb.2013.0197 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The NIH initiated the PharmGKB in April 2000. The primary mission was to create a repository of primary data, tools to track associations between genes and drugs, and to catalog the location and frequency of genetic variations known to impact drug response. Over the past 10 years, new technologies have shifted research from candidate gene pharmacogenetics to phenotype-based pharmacogenomics with a consequent explosion of data. PharmGKB has refocused on curating knowledge rather than housing primary genotype and phenotype data, and now, captures more complex relationships between genes, variants, drugs, diseases and pathways. Going forward, the challenges are to provide the tools and knowledge to plan and interpret genome-wide pharmacogenomics studies, predict gene-drug relationships based on shared mechanisms and support data-sharing consortia investigating clinical applications of pharmacogenomics.
    Pharmacogenomics 04/2010; 11(4):501-5. DOI:10.2217/pgs.10.15 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: South Africa, like many other developing countries, stands to benefit from novel diagnostics and drugs developed by pharmacogenomics guidance due to high prevalence of disease burden in the region. This includes both communicable (e.g., HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) and non-communicable (e.g., diabetes and cardiovascular) diseases. For example, although only 0.7% of the world's population lives in South Africa, the country carries 17% of the global HIV/AIDS burden and 5% of the global tuberculosis burden. Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu has coined the term Rainbow Nation, referring to a land of wealth in its many diverse peoples and cultures. It is now timely and necessary to reflect on how best to approach new genomics biotechnologies in a manner that carefully considers the public health needs and extant disease burden in the region. The aim of this paper is to document and review the advances in pharmacogenomics in South Africa and importantly, to evaluate the direction that future research should take. Previous research has shown that the populations in South Africa exhibit unique allele frequencies and novel genetic variation in pharmacogenetically relevant genes, often differing from other African and global populations. The high level of genetic diversity, low linkage disequilibrium and the presence of rare variants in these populations question the feasibility of the use of current commercially available genotyping platforms, and may partially account for genotype-phenotype discordance observed in past studies. However, the employment of high throughput technologies for genomic research, within the context of large clinical trials, combined with interdisciplinary studies and appropriate regulatory guidelines, should aid in acceleration of pharmacogenomic discoveries in high priority therapeutic areas in South Africa. Finally, we suggest that projects such as the H3Africa Initiative, the SAHGP and PGENI should play an integral role in the coordination of genomic research in South Africa, but also other African countries, by providing infrastructure and capital to local researchers, as well as providing aid in addressing the computational and statistical bottlenecks encountered at present.
    09/2011; 9(3):191-207. DOI:10.2174/187569211796957575
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