Neurocognition in Early-Onset Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorders
ABSTRACT We examined the neuropsychological functioning of youth enrolled in the NIMH funded trial, Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). We compared the baseline neuropsychological functioning of youth with schizophrenia (SZ, n = 79) to those with schizoaffective disorder (SA, n = 40), and examined the relationship of different variables of illness severity and adaptive behavior to neuropsychological functioning.
Participants ranged in age from 8 to 19 years. Diagnostic status was confirmed via structured interview over multiple time points. Domains of neuropsychological functioning included fine-motor, attention, working memory, problem-solving efficiency, inhibitory control, and social cognition. Other variables included intelligence (IQ), academic achievement skills, adaptive behavior, and different measures of illness severity.
The two groups did not differ on IQ or on any of the neuropsychological domains. The SZ group performed significantly lower in spelling. A high proportion of individuals in both groups reflected significant intellectual and academic achievement skill deficits. Significant correlations were found between the neurocognitive domains and both illness severity and adaptive behavior variables.
There were few differences between the SZ and SA groups on IQ, achievement, or neuropsychological functioning; however, both groups showed significantly high rates of deficits in IQ and basic academic skills. Correlations of the neurocognitive functions with illness severity and adaptive behavior were small to moderate in magnitude. These findings continue to implicate the importance of neurocognitive functioning as a key area of vulnerability in the study of youth with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
- SourceAvailable from: Ingrid Melle
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ABSTRACT: Background: The goal of this study was to investigate differences in executive functioning between patients with early-onset and adult-onset schizophrenia spectrum psychoses at the time of first treatment. Methods: Neuropsychological tests covering executive functioning domains were performed for 20 adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) close to first treatment and 90 first episode patients with adult onset schizophrenia (AOS) in addition to 66 adolescent- and 127 adult age and gender matched healthy controls. Results: Both EOS and AOS patients had significantly poorer executive performance than their age- and gender matched healthy counterparts. Both healthy adolescent controls and EOS patients had poorer executive performance than their adult counterparts. However, there were no differences in executive functioning between EOS and AOS patients after controlling for the levels of their age matched healthy control groups. Substituting EOS/AOS status with other age-at-onset thresholds had no effect. Conclusions: We find the same relative levels of executive dysfunction in EOS- and AOS groups at the time of first treatment. This does not necessarily contradict previous findings of more severe dysfunction in EOS patients over time, but indicates an interaction between the disorder and the maturational processes that only can be investigated through longitudinal studies.Schizophrenia Research 10/2012; 142(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2012.10.006 · 3.92 Impact Factor
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