Prostaglandin modulation of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in mice sensitized without adjuvant.
ABSTRACT As adjuvant during sensitization may cause unspecific immune reactions, the aim of the present study was to define the role of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity on airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in an adjuvant-free allergic mouse model. Administration of diclofenac and indomethacin (non-selective COX inhibitors), FR122047 (COX-1 inhibitor) and lumiracoxib (selective COX-2 inhibitor) enhanced AHR. Only diclofenac and lumiracoxib reduced the inflammatory cell content of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Moreover, levels of prostaglandins in BAL were reduced by indomethacin and FR122047 but were unaffected by lumiracoxib. However, compared with antigen controls, none of the COX inhibitors displayed major effects on the production of cytokines, smooth muscle mass, number of goblet cells and eosinophils, or collagen deposition in the airways. These data in mice sensitized without adjuvant support the fact that COX products have a general bronchoprotective role in allergic airway inflammation. Furthermore, the data suggest that COX-1 activity predominantly generates prostanoids in BAL, whereas COX-2 activity is associated with the accumulation of inflammatory cells in BAL. This study further supports that AHR on the one hand, and the inflammatory response and generation of prostanoids on the other, are dissociated and, at least in part, uncoupled events.
- SourceAvailable from: Phil A Stumbles[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Considerable variation exists in the protocols used to induce hyperresponsiveness in murine models of allergic sensitisation. We examined the effect of varying the number of antigen exposures at challenge on the development of methacholine responsiveness in systemically sensitised mice. BALB/c mice were sensitised with ovalbumin (OVA), challenged with 1, 3 or 6 OVA aerosols. Lung function was measured using low frequency forced oscillations and partitioned into components representing the airways (Raw) and lung parenchyma (tissue damping (G) and tissue elastance (H)). Responsiveness to inhaled methacholine (MCh), inflammatory cell profile and circulating IgE were assessed 24 and 48 hours after challenge. The threshold dose of MCh required to elicit a detectable response (sensitivity) and response to 30 mg x mL(-1) (maximal response) were determined for each compartment. Sensitivity; All three OVA protocols resulted in an increased sensitivity to MCh in Raw but not in G or H. These responses where present at 24 and 48 hrs, except 1 OVA aerosol in which changes had resolved by 48 hrs. Maximal response; 1 OVA aerosol increased maximal responses in Raw, G and H at 24 hrs, which was gone by 48 hrs. Three OVA aerosols increased responses in H at 48 hrs only. Six OVA challenges caused increases in Raw, G and H at both 24 and 48 hrs. Eosinophils increased with increasing antigen challenges. IgE was elevated by OVA sensitisation but not boosted by OVA aerosol challenge. The pattern of eosinophilia, IgE and MCh responsiveness in mice was determined by antigen dose at challenge. In this study, increased sensitivity to MCh was confined to the airways whereas increases in maximal responses occurred in both the airway and parenchymal compartments. The presence of eosinophilia and IgE did not always coincide with increased responsiveness to inhaled MCh. These findings require further systematic study to determine whether different mechanisms underlie airway and parenchymal hyperresponsiveness post antigen challenge.Respiratory research 02/2004; 5:15. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inhalation of iloprost, a stable prostacyclin (PGI(2)) analog, is a well-accepted and safe treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension. Although iloprost mainly acts as a vasodilator by binding to the I prostanoid (IP) receptor, recent evidence suggests that signaling via this receptor also has antiinflammatory effects through unclear mechanisms. Here we show in a murine model of asthma that iloprost inhalation suppressed the cardinal features of asthma when given during the priming or challenge phase. As a mechanism of action, iloprost interfered with the function of lung myeloid DCs, critical antigen-presenting cells of the airways. Iloprost treatment inhibited the maturation and migration of lung DCs to the mediastinal LNs, thereby abolishing the induction of an allergen-specific Th2 response in these nodes. The effect of iloprost was DC autonomous, as iloprost-treated DCs no longer induced Th2 differentiation from naive T cells or boosted effector cytokine production in primed Th2 cells. These data should pave the way for a clinical effectiveness study using inhaled iloprost for the treatment of asthma.Journal of Clinical Investigation 03/2007; 117(2):464-72. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Brain stem noradrenergic cell groups mediating autonomic responses to stress project to airway-related vagal preganglionic neurons (AVPNs). In ferrets, their activation produces withdrawal of cholinergic outflow to the airways via release of norepinephrine and activation of alpha(2A)-adrenergic receptors (alpha(2A)-AR) expressed by AVPNs. In these studies, we examined the effects of allergen exposure of the airway (AE) with ovalbumin on noradrenergic transmission regulating the activity of AVPNs and, consequently, airway smooth muscle tone. Experiments were performed in vehicle control (Con) and AE ferrets. Microperfusion of an alpha(2A)-AR agonist (guanabenz) in close proximity to AVPNs elicited more pronounced effects in Con than AE ferrets, including a decrease in unit activity and reflexly evoked responses of putative AVPN neurons with a corresponding decrease in cholinergic outflow to the airways. Although no differences were found in the extent of noradrenergic innervation of the AVPNs, RT-PCR and Western blot studies demonstrated that AE and repeated exposure to antigen significantly reduced expression of alpha(2A)-ARs at message and protein levels. These findings indicate that, in an animal model of allergic asthma, sensitization and repeated challenges with a specific allergen diminish central inhibitory noradrenergic modulation of AVPNs, possibly via downregulation of alpha(2A)-AR expression by these neurons.Journal of Applied Physiology 01/2008; 103(6):2095-104. · 3.48 Impact Factor