Identification of Long stress-induced non-coding transcripts that have altered expression in cancer

Division of Experimental Pathology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
Genomics (Impact Factor: 2.28). 03/2010; 95(6):355-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.ygeno.2010.02.009
Source: PubMed


It has recently become clear that the transcriptional output of the human genome is far more abundant than previously anticipated, with the vast majority of transcripts not coding for protein. Utilizing whole-genome tiling arrays, we analyzed the transcription across the entire genome in both normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) and NHBE cells exposed to the tobacco carcinogen NNK. Our efforts focused on the characterization of non-coding transcripts that were greater than 300 nucleotides in length and whose expression was increased in response to NNK. We identified 12 Long Stress-Induced Non-coding Transcripts that we term LSINCTs. Northern blot analysis revealed that these transcripts were larger than predicted from the tiling array data. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR performed across a panel of normal cell lines indicates that these transcripts are more abundantly expressed in rapidly growing tissues or in tissues that are more prone to cellular stress. These transcripts that have increased expression after exposure to NNK also had increased expression in a number of lung cancer cell lines and also in many breast cancer cell lines. Collectively, our results identified a new class of long stress responsive non-coding transcripts, LSINCTs, which have increased expression in response to DNA damage induced by NNK. LSINCTs interestingly also have increased expression in a number of cancer-derived cell lines, indicating that the expression is increased in both, correlating cellular stress and cancer.

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Available from: David I Smith, Mar 06, 2015
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    • "For example, Silva et al., 2010 analyzed transcription across the entire genome in both normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) and NHBE cells exposed to the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3- pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Twelve long stress-induced noncoding transcripts (LSINCTs) were identified (Silva et al., 2010). We then examined, for the first time, the lncRNA expression profiles in 16HBE-T cells and found that a small number of lncRNAs were abnormally expressed, with changes greater than 2.0-fold. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths and remains an important public health problem worldwide. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are newly identified regulators of tumorigenesis and tumor progression. However, the role of lncRNAs in lung cancer induced by environmental carcinogens remains largely unknown. In this study, an lncRNA microarray was used to compare the expression profiles of malignantly transformed 16HBE cells (16HBE-T) induced with anti-benzo[a]pyrene-trans-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (anti-BPDE) and normal 16HBE cells (16HBE-N). Using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), lncRNA AF118081 was identified as the most significantly overexpressed lncRNA in 16HBE-T cells, lung cancer cells, and patient samples. Cell proliferation, colony formation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were assayed in 16HBE-T cells following the knockdown of lncRNA AF118081 with small interfering RNA. AF118081 knockdown inhibited cell growth and tumor invasion. An in vivo (nude mouse) model was then used to assay tumor growth, and the downregulation of AF118081 clearly suppressed tumor growth, consistent with the results of the in vitro assays. Together, these findings identify a new oncogenic lncRNA, lncRNA AF118081, in malignantly transformed 16HBE cells. This enhances our understanding of lncRNAs as important regulatory elements in chemical carcinogenesis and potential targets of lung cancer therapies.
    Toxicology Letters 07/2014; 229(3). DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.07.004 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    • "lncRNAs are dysregulated in a number of human diseases, including several cancers and neurological disorders and show tissue-specific expression [36]. Several lncRNA have increased expression in a number of cancer cells [37]. Genotoxic stress-inducible nuclear lncRNA have been identified [38]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A wide variety of biological effects are induced in cells that are exposed to ionizing radiation. The expression changes of coding mRNA and non-coding micro-RNA have been implicated in irradiated cells. The involvement of other classes of non-coding RNAs (ncRNA), such as small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in cells recovering from radiation-induced damage has not been examined. Thus, we investigated whether these ncRNA were undergoing changes in cells exposed to ionizing radiation. The modulation of ncRNAs expression was determined in human TK6 (p53 positive) and WTK1 (p53 negative) cells. The snoRNA host genes SNHG1, SNHG6, and SNHG11 were induced in TK6 cells. In WTK1 cells, SNHG1 was induced but SNHG6, and SNHG11 were repressed. SNHG7 was repressed in TK6 cells and was upregulated in WTK1 cells. The lncRNA MALAT1 and SOX2OT were induced in both TK6 and WTK1 cells and SRA1 was induced in TK6 cells only. Interestingly, the MIAT and PIWIL1 were not expressed in TK6 cells before or after the ionizing radiation treatment. The MIAT and PIWIL1 were upregulated in WTK1 cells. This data provides evidence that altered ncRNA expression is a part of the complex stress response operating in radiation-treated cells and this response depends on functional p53.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 05/2013; 14(5):9099-9110. DOI:10.3390/ijms14059099 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    • "Processes associated with lncRNAs include epigenetic regulation of multi-gene loci [6,7], apoptosis and cell cycle [8], regulation of gene splicing [9] and tumor suppressor activity [10]. There are also examples of lncRNAs playing a role in the adaptive immunity of mammals [11], being differentially expressed in response to carcinogens [12] and functioning as enhancers [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) are a major class of non-coding RNAs. They are involved in diverse intra-cellular mechanisms like molecular scaffolding, splicing and DNA methylation. Through these mechanisms they are reported to play a role in cellular differentiation and development. They show an enriched expression in the brain where they are implicated in maintaining cellular identity, homeostasis, stress responses and plasticity. Low sequence conservation and lack of functional annotations make it difficult to identify homologs of mammalian lncRNAs in other vertebrates. A computational evaluation of the lncRNAs through systematic conservation analyses of both sequences as well as their genomic architecture is required. Results Our results show that a subset of mouse candidate lncRNAs could be distinguished from random sequences based on their alignment with zebrafish phastCons elements. Using ROC analyses we were able to define a measure to select significantly conserved lncRNAs. Indeed, starting from ~2,800 mouse lncRNAs we could predict that between 4 and 11% present conserved sequence fragments in fish genomes. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analyses of protein coding genes, proximal to the region of conservation, in both organisms highlighted similar GO classes like regulation of transcription and central nervous system development. The proximal coding genes in both the species show enrichment of their expression in brain. In summary, we show that interesting genomic regions in zebrafish could be marked based on their sequence homology to a mouse lncRNA, overlap with ESTs and proximity to genes involved in nervous system development. Conclusions Conservation at the sequence level can identify a subset of putative lncRNA orthologs. The similar protein-coding neighborhood and transcriptional information about the conserved candidates provide support to the hypothesis that they share functional homology. The pipeline herein presented represents a proof of principle showing that a portion between 4 and 11% of lncRNAs retains region of conservation between mammals and fishes. We believe this study will result useful as a reference to analyze the conservation of lncRNAs in newly sequenced genomes and transcriptomes.
    BMC Bioinformatics 04/2013; 14(7):14. DOI:10.1186/1471-2105-14-S7-S14 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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