The frequency and reasons for antiretroviral switching with specific antiretroviral associations: The SWITCH study
ABSTRACT We investigated the reasons for switching antiretroviral regimens, an issue rarely addressed in cohort studies.
An observed toxicity switch rate (OTSR) was calculated by Poisson regression using the number of days individuals received each individual antiretroviral drug.
Of 3333 individuals receiving HAART, a total of 14% of regimens were switched, the majority occurring after 6 months of therapy. Toxicity was the major reason for switching (61%) and there were no major statistically significant differences in OTSR between the protease inhibitor (OTSR 26.4, 95% CI 18.3-37) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (OTSR 22.2, 95% CI 13.6-34.4) based regimes. For individual antiretrovirals, stavudine and zidovudine had significantly higher "switch" scores than all other drugs.
There were no differences between the major HAART classes in OTSR. We suggest that newer antiretrovirals will require differentiation in terms of longer-term toxicity, as this is the major reason for switching.
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ABSTRACT: The present paper describes possible connections between antiretroviral therapies (ARTs) used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) encountered predominantly in the liver, including hypersensitivity syndrome reactions, as well as throughout the gastrointestinal system, including the pancreas. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has a positive influence on the quality of life and longevity in HIV patients, substantially reducing morbidity and mortality in this population. However, HAART produces a spectrum of ADRs. Alcohol consumption can interact with HAART as well as other pharmaceutical agents used for the prevention of opportunistic infections such as pneumonia and tuberculosis. Other coinfections that occur in HIV, such as hepatitis viruses B or C, cytomegalovirus, or herpes simplex virus, further complicate the etiology of HAART-induced ADRs. The aspect of liver pathology including liver structure and function has received little attention and deserves further evaluation. The materials used provide a data-supported approach. They are based on systematic review and analysis of recently published world literature (MedLine search) and the experience of the authors in the specified topic. We conclude that therapeutic and drug monitoring of ART, using laboratory identification of phenotypic susceptibilities, drug interactions with other medications, drug interactions with herbal medicines, and alcohol intake might enable a safer use of this medication.01/2012; 2012(2090-3448):760706. DOI:10.1155/2012/760706
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ABSTRACT: Two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and efavirenz (EFV) is a recommended initial regimen for HIV-1. Most EFV-related central nervous system (CNS) toxicity resolves early though symptoms may persist; we studied switching to etravirine (ETR) in these individuals. A randomized, double-blind trial in patients with viral suppression but ongoing CNS adverse events after more than 12 weeks EFV. Patients received 2NRTI/EFV/ETR-placebo (delayed switch) or 2NRTI/ETR/EFV-placebo (immediate switch) for 12 weeks followed by 12-week open-label phase (2NRTI/ETR). Primary end-point was percentage with G2-4 CNS adverse events at 12 weeks. Thirty-eight men; 20/18 were randomized to immediate switch/delayed switch; median CD4 was 444/498 cells/μl, respectively. Baseline CNS adverse events were similar. Nineteen immediate switch patients completed follow-up (one lost to follow-up) and 13 on delayed switch (two lost to follow-up, two withdrawn consent, one adverse event). Immediate switch G2-4 CNS adverse event: 90% at baseline, 60% at week 12 (P = 0.041). Delayed switch G2-4 CNS adverse event: 88.9% at baseline, 81.3% at week 12 (P = ns). Combined (both arms) percentage decline in G2-4 CNS adverse event after 12 weeks of ETR was significant for overall adverse events, insomnia, abnormal dreams and nervousness (P = 0.009, 0.016, 0.001, and 0.046, respectively). All participants on study maintained HIV-RNA below 50 and median week 24 CD4 was 593 and 607 cells/μl on immediate switch and delayed switch. Two participants experienced new G3-4 adverse events [delayed switch: G3 flatulence on EFV); immediate switch: G4 viral URTI on ETR (SAE)]. Switching EFV to ETR led to a significant reduction in overall G2-4 CNS adverse events, including insomnia, abnormal dreams and nervousness as individual adverse event. Lack of improvement for some events suggests other causative factors.AIDS (London, England) 01/2011; 25(1):65-71. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0b013e328341685b · 6.56 Impact Factor
- AIDS (London, England) 01/2011; 25(3):391. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283420e7b · 6.56 Impact Factor