Recent advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis and control of diseases caused by porcine circovirus type 2.
ABSTRACT Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) emerged as a significant disease affecting pig production in the 1990s although the causal agent, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), and the disease itself, had existed in swine for many years prior to this. The important multifactorial 'triggers' of PMWS include the immune and infection status of the sow, the timing of PCV2 infection, variations in the virulence of PCV2, co-infections, immune modulation as well as host genetics and management factors. In terms of diagnosis, histopathological examination and the detection of PCV2 within lymphoid tissue remains the 'gold standard' as quantitative PCR techniques are currently not specific or sensitive enough. The recent commercial availability of PCV2 vaccines provides an excellent tool for reducing the impact of PMWS and other porcine circovirus-related diseases. This review assesses recent advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis and control of PMWS.
Article: Antibody responses following vaccination versus infection in a porcine circovirus-type 2 (PCV2) disease model show distinct differences in virus neutralization and epitope recognition.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) encompasses a group of syndromes linked to infection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Based on the hypothesis that the immune responses to vaccination versus infection are quantitatively and qualitatively different, the objective of this study was to evaluate immunity, virus replication and disease protection in pigs vaccinated with PCV2 capsid protein (CP) and during infection. The disease model included dual infection with PCV2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a virus known to enhance disease progression and severity. The principal effect of PRRSV infection was to increase peak PCV2 viremia by almost 40-fold; however, PCV2 failed to show a reciprocal effect on PRRSV. In vaccinated pigs, there was no evidence of disease or PCV2 replication following dual virus challenge. Immunity following vaccination favored PCV2 neutralizing activity; whereas, PCV2 infection and disease produced high levels of non-neutralizing antibody, primarily directed against a polypeptide in the C-terminal region of CP. These results support the notion that the magnitude of the total antibody response cannot be used as a measure of protective immunity. Furthermore, protection versus disease lies in the immunodominance of specific epitopes. Epitope specificity should be taken into consideration when designing PCV2 vaccines.Vaccine 04/2012; 30(27):4079-85. · 3.77 Impact Factor