The infectivity of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to insecticide-resistant and susceptible Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes at two different temperatures

School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Malaria Journal (Impact Factor: 3.49). 03/2010; 9:71. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-71
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Control of the major African malaria vector species continues to rely extensively on the application of residual insecticides through indoor house spraying or bed net impregnation. Insecticide resistance is undermining the sustainability of these control strategies. Alternatives to the currently available conventional chemical insecticides are, therefore, urgently needed. Use of fungal pathogens as biopesticides is one such possibility. However, one of the challenges to the approach is the potential influence of varied environmental conditions and target species that could affect the efficacy of a biological 'active ingredient'. An initial investigation into this was carried out to assess the susceptibility of insecticide-susceptible and resistant laboratory strains and wild-collected Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes to infection with the fungus Beauveria bassiana under two different laboratory temperature regimes.
Insecticide susceptibility to all four classes of insecticides recommended by WHO for vector control was tested on laboratory and wild-caught An. arabiensis, using standard WHO bioassay protocols. Mosquito susceptibility to fungus infection was tested using dry spores of B. bassiana under two temperature regimes (21 +/- 1 degrees C or 25 +/- 2 degrees C) representative of indoor conditions observed in western Kenya. Cox regression analysis was used to assess the effect of fungal infection on mosquito survival and the effect of insecticide resistance status and temperature on mortality rates following fungus infection.
Survival data showed no relationship between insecticide susceptibility and susceptibility to B. bassiana. All tested colonies showed complete susceptibility to fungal infection despite some showing high resistance levels to chemical insecticides. There was, however, a difference in fungus-induced mortality rates between temperature treatments with virulence significantly higher at 25 degrees C than 21 degrees C. Even so, because malaria parasite development is also known to slow as temperatures fall, expected reductions in malaria transmission potential due to fungal infection under the cooler conditions would still be high.
These results provide evidence that the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana has potential for use as an alternative vector control tool against insecticide-resistant mosquitoes under conditions typical of indoor resting environments. Nonetheless, the observed variation in effective virulence reveals the need for further study to optimize selection of isolates, dose and use strategy in different eco-epidemiological settings.

Download full-text


Available from: Bart GJ Knols, Aug 22, 2015
  • Source
    • "B. bassiana is a common soil-borne entomopathogenic fungus, infecting a broad range of insects. Analogously to E. coli, this pathogen has been extensively used to test the innate immune response in insects (Kraaijeveld and Godfray 2008; Toledo et al. 2010; Kikankie et al. 2010; Migiro et al. 2010) since it triggers another conserved immune pathway, the Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) pathway (Broderick et al. 2009). This fungus was used rather than E. coli for the colony level behavioural responses because larvae could be infected without wounding, and wounding likely would have resulted in hygienic behaviour by adults. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Successful invaders often become established in new ranges by outcompeting native species. The "evolution of increased competitive ability" hypothesis predicts that invasive species are subjected to less predation and parasitization than sympatric native species, and thus can allocate resources from defence and immunity to growth and fecundity, thereby achieving higher fitness. In this study, we examined whether American invasive Polistes dominula paper wasps have reduced immunocompetence. To explore this scenario, we tested their susceptibility towards parasites and pathogens at both the individual (immune defence) and colony levels, i.e. hygienic behaviour (removal of diseased individuals by nestmates). First, we examined the response to the specific coevolved parasite Xenos vesparum (lost after invasion) in terms of individual host susceptibility and hygienic behaviour. Second, we explored the response against general pathogens by quantifying the bacterial clearance in individual wasps after a challenge with Escherichia coli and hygienic behaviour after a challenge with the fungus Beauveria bassiana. Our results show that American invasive P. dominula have a higher response against X. vesparum at the colony level, but at the individual level their susceptibility is not significantly different from conspecifics of the native range. On the other hand, invasive P. dominula display lower response after a challenge with general pathogens at both the individual and colony levels. While supporting the hypothesis of a reduction of immunocompetence towards general pathogens in invasive species, these findings also suggest that the response against coevolved parasites might follow different evolutionary pathways which are not always easily predictable.
    Naturwissenschaften 01/2013; 100(3). DOI:10.1007/s00114-013-1014-9 · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "gambiae it was 95% after 24 hours. The entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana has used as an alternative vector control tool against insecticide-resistant mosquitoes under conditions typical of indoor resting environments [5]. A range of fungal-based insecticide combinations was used to test effects of timing and sequence of exposure. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aspergillus niger is a fungus of the genus Aspergillus. It has caused a disease called black mold on certain fruits and vegetables. The culture filtrates released from the A. niger ATCC 66566 were grown in Czapek dox broth (CDB) then filtered with flash chromatograph and were used for the bioassay after a growth of thirty days. The result demonstrated these mortalities with LC(50), LC(90), and LC(99) values of Culex quinquefasciatus 0.76, 3.06, and 4.75, Anopheles stephensi 1.43, 3.2, and 3.86, and Aedes aegypti 1.43, 2.2, and 4.1 μl/cm(2), after exposure of seven hours. We have calculated significant LT(90) values of Cx. quinquefasciatus 4.5, An. stephensi 3.54, and Ae. aegypti 6.0 hrs, respectively. This liquid spray of fungal culture isolate of A. niger can reduce malaria, dengue, and filarial transmission. These results significantly support broadening the current vector control paradigm beyond chemical adulticides.
    The Scientific World Journal 05/2012; 2012(53):603984. DOI:10.1100/2012/603984 · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Entomopathogenic fungi are being investigated as a new mosquito control tool because insecticide resistance is preventing successful mosquito control in many countries, and new methods are required that can target insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Although laboratory studies have previously examined the effects of entomopathogenic fungi against adult mosquitoes, most application methods used cannot be readily deployed in the field. Because the fungi are biological organisms it is important to test potential field application methods that will not adversely affect them. The two objectives of this study were to investigate any differences in fungal susceptibility between an insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, and to test a potential field application method with respect to the viability and virulence of two fungal species Pieces of white polyester netting were dipped in Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE-30 or Beauveria bassiana IMI391510 mineral oil suspensions. These were kept at 27 +/- 1 degrees C, 80 +/- 10% RH and the viability of the fungal conidia was recorded at different time points. Tube bioassays were used to infect insecticide-resistant (VKPER) and insecticide-susceptible (SKK) strains of An. gambiae s.s., and survival analysis was used to determine effects of mosquito strain, fungus species or time since fungal treatment of the net. The resistant VKPER strain was significantly more susceptible to fungal infection than the insecticide-susceptible SKK strain. Furthermore, B. bassiana was significantly more virulent than M. anisopliae for both mosquito strains, although this may be linked to the different viabilities of these fungal species. The viability of both fungal species decreased significantly one day after application onto polyester netting when compared to the viability of conidia remaining in suspension. The insecticide-resistant mosquito strain was susceptible to both species of fungus indicating that entomopathogenic fungi can be used in resistance management and integrated vector management programmes to target insecticide-resistant mosquitoes. Although fungal viability significantly decreased when applied to the netting, the effectiveness of the fungal treatment at killing mosquitoes did not significantly deteriorate. Field trials over a longer trial period need to be carried out to verify whether polyester netting is a good candidate for operational use, and to see if wild insecticide-resistant mosquitoes are as susceptible to fungal infection as the VKPER strain.
    Malaria Journal 06/2010; 9:168. DOI:10.1186/1475-2875-9-168 · 3.49 Impact Factor
Show more