To compare esophageal function in dogs with idiopathic laryngeal paralysis (ILP) to age and breed matched controls; to determine if dysfunction is associated with aspiration pneumonia over 1 year; and to compare clinical neurologic examination of dogs with ILP at enrollment and at 1 year.
Prospective controlled cohort study.
Dogs with ILP (n=32) and 34 age and breed matched healthy dogs.
Mean esophageal score was determined for each phase of 3 phase esophagrams, analyzed blindly. After unilateral cricoarytenoid laryngoplasty, dogs with ILP were reexamined (including thoracic radiography) at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Neurologic status was recorded at enrollment, 6 and 12 months.
Esophagram scores in dogs with ILP were significantly higher in each phase compared with controls, most notably with liquid (P<.0001). Dysfunction was more pronounced in the cervical and cranial thoracic esophagus. Five dogs that had aspiration pneumonia during the study had significantly higher esophagram scores than dogs that did not develop aspiration pneumonia (P<.02). Ten (31%) ILP dogs had generalized neurologic signs on enrollment and all ILP dogs developed neurologic signs by 1 year (P<.0001). Conclusions- Dogs with ILP also have esophageal dysfunction. Postoperative aspiration pneumonia is more likely in dogs with higher esophagram scores. Dogs with ILP will most likely develop generalized neuropathy over the course of 1 year.
Esophagrams and neurologic examinations should be performed on all dogs with ILP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence of canine post-anesthetic aspiration pneumonia (AP) and to identify anesthetic agents, procedures and management factors associated with the development of AP.
Multicenter, randomized, case-controlled retrospective study.
Two hundred and forty dogs affected with AP and 488 unaffected control dogs.
Electronic medical record databases at six Veterinary colleges were searched for dogs, coded for anesthesia or sedation and pneumonia from January 1999 to December 2009. The resultant 2158 records were hand-searched to determine eligibility for inclusion. Diagnosis of AP was made radiographically. Two unaffected control dogs were randomly selected for each affected dog, from a list of dogs that underwent sedation or anesthesia in the same time period and did not develop aspiration pneumonia. Fifty-seven factors were then evaluated for association with aspiration pneumonia. Data analysis was performed using univariate Chi-square or student t-tests, then multivariate logistic regression.
Incidence of post-anesthetic AP was 0.17%, from 140,711 cases anesthetized or sedated over the 10 year period. Two anesthesia-related events were significantly associated with development of AP: regurgitation and administration of hydromorphone at induction. Administration of anticholinergics was not associated with AP. Procedures associated with increased odds of aspiration pneumonia included laparotomy, upper airway surgery, neurosurgery, thoracotomy and endoscopy. Orthopedic surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, dental procedures, MRI, CT, bronchoscopy, cystoscopy, tracheoscopy and neutering were not associated with development of AP. Three patient factors were associated with the development of AP: megaesophagus, and a history of pre-existing respiratory or neurologic disease. Sixty-nine% of dogs with two or more of the above independent predictive variables developed AP.
Most anesthetic agents and procedures were not associated with the development of AP. We need to devise and evaluate strategies to protect at risk patients.
"This generalised polyneuropathy is a slowly progressive degenerative condition that affects peripheral nerves (Stanley et al. 2010). Obvious clinical signs of general polyneuropathy and dysphagia can take months to years to develop (Jeffery et al. 2006; Stanley et al. 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laryngeal paralysis is the effect of an inability to abduct the arytenoid cartilages duringinspiration, resulting in respiratory signs consistent with partial airway obstruction. Theaetiology of the disease can be congenital (hereditary laryngeal paralysis or congenitalpolyneuropathy), or acquired (trauma, neoplasia, polyneuropathy, endocrinopathy). Themost common form of acquired laryngeal paralysis (LP) is typically seen in old, large breeddogs and is a clinical manifestation of a generalised peripheral polyneuropathy recentlyreferred to as geriatric onset laryngeal paralysis polyneuropathy. Diagnosing LP based onclinical signs, breed and history has a very high sensitivity (90%) and can be confirmed bylaryngeal inspection. Prognosis after surgical correction depends on the aetiology: traumaticcases have a good prognosis, whereas tumour-induced or polyneuropathy-induced LP has aguarded prognosis. Acquired idiopathic LP is a slow progressive disease, with dogs reachingmedian survival times of 3-5 years after surgical correction.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 02/2013; 84(1):E1-E9. DOI:10.4102/jsava.v84i1.909 · 0.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the difficulties in determining a calibration
when very high electric stresses are used, particularly if the material
under test contains charges with very high mobilities. An extended
method for determining the calibration, which allows for the resolution
of the very mobile charges is presented. This method can be applied to
any fast non-destructive measuring technique such as the LIPP or PEA.
The calibration procedure is discussed as applied to the LIPP technique
and crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) samples are used to illustrate the
method. It is demonstrated that under high electric stress there is a
very mobile space charge that will modify the internal electric stress
distribution after very short periods of time. The mobility of these
carriers may be sufficient to affect the performance of the insulation
under ac conditions
Conduction and Breakdown in Solid Dielectrics, 1995. ICSD'95., Proceedings of the 1995 IEEE 5th International Conference on; 08/1995
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