Esophageal Dysfunction in Dogs with Idiopathic Laryngeal Paralysis: A Controlled Cohort Study
ABSTRACT To compare esophageal function in dogs with idiopathic laryngeal paralysis (ILP) to age and breed matched controls; to determine if dysfunction is associated with aspiration pneumonia over 1 year; and to compare clinical neurologic examination of dogs with ILP at enrollment and at 1 year.
Prospective controlled cohort study.
Dogs with ILP (n=32) and 34 age and breed matched healthy dogs.
Mean esophageal score was determined for each phase of 3 phase esophagrams, analyzed blindly. After unilateral cricoarytenoid laryngoplasty, dogs with ILP were reexamined (including thoracic radiography) at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Neurologic status was recorded at enrollment, 6 and 12 months.
Esophagram scores in dogs with ILP were significantly higher in each phase compared with controls, most notably with liquid (P<.0001). Dysfunction was more pronounced in the cervical and cranial thoracic esophagus. Five dogs that had aspiration pneumonia during the study had significantly higher esophagram scores than dogs that did not develop aspiration pneumonia (P<.02). Ten (31%) ILP dogs had generalized neurologic signs on enrollment and all ILP dogs developed neurologic signs by 1 year (P<.0001). Conclusions- Dogs with ILP also have esophageal dysfunction. Postoperative aspiration pneumonia is more likely in dogs with higher esophagram scores. Dogs with ILP will most likely develop generalized neuropathy over the course of 1 year.
Esophagrams and neurologic examinations should be performed on all dogs with ILP.
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ABSTRACT: An inherited polyneuropathy (PN) observed in Leonberger dogs has clinical similarities to a genetically heterogeneous group of peripheral neuropathies termed Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease in humans. The Leonberger disorder is a severe, juvenile-onset, chronic, progressive, and mixed PN, characterized by exercise intolerance, gait abnormalities and muscle atrophy of the pelvic limbs, as well as inspiratory stridor and dyspnea. We mapped a PN locus in Leonbergers to a 250 kb region on canine chromosome 16 (Praw = 1.16×10-10, Pgenome, corrected = 0.006) utilizing a high-density SNP array. Within this interval is the ARHGEF10 gene, a member of the rho family of GTPases known to be involved in neuronal growth and axonal migration, and implicated in human hypomyelination. ARHGEF10 sequencing identified a 10 bp deletion in affected dogs that removes four nucleotides from the 3'-end of exon 17 and six nucleotides from the 5'-end of intron 17 (c.1955_1958+6delCACGGTGAGC). This eliminates the 3'-splice junction of exon 17, creates an alternate splice site immediately downstream in which the processed mRNA contains a frame shift, and generates a premature stop codon predicted to truncate approximately 50% of the protein. Homozygosity for the deletion was highly associated with the severe juvenile-onset PN phenotype in both Leonberger and Saint Bernard dogs. The overall clinical picture of PN in these breeds, and the effects of sex and heterozygosity of the ARHGEF10 deletion, are less clear due to the likely presence of other forms of PN with variable ages of onset and severity of clinical signs. This is the first documented severe polyneuropathy associated with a mutation in ARHGEF10 in any species.PLoS Genetics 10/2014; 10(10):e1004635. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004635 · 8.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess risk factors and complications affecting postoperative outcome of dogs with laryngeal paralysis treated by either unilateral arytenoid lateralization (UAL) or bilateral ventriculocordectomy (VCC). Medical records of all dogs having either UAL or VCC between 2000 and 2011 were analyzed. Twenty-five dogs had VCC and 20 dogs had UAL. The overall postoperative complications rates for VCC and UAL were similar (52% and 60%, respectively; P = .0887). Dogs that had UAL were more likely to have acute postoperative respiratory distress and aspiration pneumonia (P = .0526). Dogs with VCC were more likely to have chronic postoperative respiratory distress and aspiration pneumonia (P = .0079). Revision surgery was required in 6 dogs (24%) following VCC and 2 dogs (10%) following UAL. Sex, breed, presenting complaint, type of service provided, and concurrent diseases were not significantly associated with higher risk of either death or decreased survival time postoperatively with either procedure. Overall postoperative complication rates, required revision surgeries, and episodes of aspiration pneumonia were similar in dogs undergoing UAL and VCC surgeries. Dogs that had VCC appeared to have an increased risk of lifelong complications postoperatively compared with UAL; therefore, VCC may not be the optimal choice for treatment of laryngeal paralysis.Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 05/2014; 50(4). DOI:10.5326/JAAHA-MS-6081 · 0.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective-To evaluate anatomic landmarks to define the ideal suture placement location to achieve appropriate and consistent arytenoid cartilage abduction via unilateral cricoarytenoid lateralization (UCL) in dogs. Sample-6 cadaveric canine larynges. Procedures-Laryngeal airway resistance (LAR) was determined for each specimen before (baseline) and after suture placements with the epiglottis open and closed. To achieve UCL, suture was placed through the cricoid cartilage just caudal to the cricoarytenoid articulation (suture placement position [SPP] 1), one-fourth of the distance caudally between the cricoarytenoid and cricothyroid articulations (SPP 2), and three-fourths of the distance caudally between the cricoarytenoid and cricothyroid articulations (SPP 3). The LAR was again calculated after tensioning of each suture separately. Results-With a closed epiglottis, median LAR was 30.0, 20.4, 11.4, and 3.3 cm H2O/L/s at baseline and SPPs 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After UCL at SPP 1, LAR with the epiglottis closed was not significantly different from that at baseline. With an open epiglottis, median LAR was 2.0, 0.4, 0.2, and 0.0 cm H2O/L/s at baseline and SPPs 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After UCL at SPPs 1, 2, or 3, LAR with an open epiglottis was significantly lower than that at baseline. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that placement of suture through the cricoid cartilage at the caudal border of the cricoarytenoid articulation was appropriate to sufficiently reduce LAR without increasing the risk of aspiration pneumonia through overabduction of the arytenoid cartilage.American Journal of Veterinary Research 06/2014; 75(6):602-6. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.75.6.602 · 1.21 Impact Factor