Kisspeptin cells in the ewe brain respond to leptin and communicate with neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin cells.
ABSTRACT Kisspeptin stimulates reproduction, and kisspeptin cells in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) express Ob-Rb in the mouse. Herein we report studies in ewes to determine whether kisspeptin cells express Ob-Rb and respond to leptin and whether reciprocal connections exist between kisspeptin cells and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) or neuropeptide Y (NPY) cells to modulate reproduction and metabolic function. Kiss1 mRNA was measured by in situ hybridization in ovariectomized ewes that were normal body weight, lean, or lean with leptin treatment by intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion (4 microg/h, 3 d). Kiss1 expression in the ARC and the preoptic area was lower in hypogonadotropic lean animals than animals of normal weight, and icv infusion of leptin partially restored Kiss1 expression in lean animals. Single-cell laser capture microdissection coupled with real-time PCR showed that Kiss1 cells in the preoptic area and ARC express Ob-Rb. Double-label fluorescent immunohistochemistry showed that reciprocal connections exist between kisspeptin cells and NPY and POMC cells. Accordingly, we treated ovariectomized ewes with kisspeptin (5 microg/h, icv) or vehicle for 20 h and examined POMC and NPY gene expression by in situ hybridization. Kisspeptin treatment reduced POMC and increased NPY gene expression. Thus, kisspeptin neurons respond to leptin and expression of Kiss1 mRNA is affected by leptin status. Kisspeptin cells communicate with NPY and POMC cells, altering expression of the relevant genes in the target cells; reciprocal connections also exist. This network between the three cell types could coordinate brain control of reproduction and metabolic homeostatic systems.
Article: Developmental and steroidogenic effects on the gene expression of RFamide related peptides and their receptor in the rat brain and pituitary gland.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: RFamide related peptides (RFRPs) have been extensively implicated in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction. While steroid hormones strongly regulate the closely-related kisspeptin gene and protein expression, the regulation of RFRPs or their receptor by steroid hormones is almost unknown. The present study aimed to quantify relative levels of RFRP and Kiss1 gene expression and their G protein-coupled receptors (GPR147 and GPR54, respectively) in various brain areas and the pituitary gland, and to determine the effects of differing levels of oestradiol and pubertal development on levels of these gene products. In Experiment 1, the treatment groups examined were: dioestrus, ovariectomised and ovariectomised with replacement oestradiol to induce a preovulatory-like luteinising hormone surge. Micropunched brain regions and whole pituitary glands were processed for measurement of RFRP, Kiss1, GPR147 and GPR54 mRNA by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. As expected, Kiss1 gene expression was low in the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle of ovariectomised animals, whereas levels were highest in the arcuate nucleus in this situation. No such oestrogenic effects were observed for RFRP gene expression. GPR147 gene expression was highest in the rostral periventricular region of the third ventricle. The levels of GPR147 and GPR54 mRNA were markedly lower in the pituitary gland than in the hypothalamic regions, and RFRP and Kiss1 mRNA were virtually undetectable in the pituitary gland. These data imply that the actions of RFamides are likely to be predominantly central in nature. In Experiment 2, hypothalamic RFRP and GPR147 mRNA levels were measured in male and female rats aged 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. In females, RFRP gene expression increased with developmental age, peaking around the time of puberty, whereas in males gene expression increased between 2 and 4 weeks of age. These results suggest a role in the regulation of adult reproduction rather that prepubertal infertility.Journal of Neuroendocrinology 01/2010; 22(4):309-16. · 3.14 Impact Factor
Article: Leptin deficiency and diet-induced obesity reduce hypothalamic kisspeptin expression in mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The hormone leptin modulates a diverse range of biological functions, including energy homeostasis and reproduction. Leptin promotes GnRH function via an indirect action on forebrain neurons. We tested whether leptin deficiency or leptin resistance due to a high-fat diet (HFD) can regulate the potent reproductive neuropeptide kisspeptin. In mice with normalized levels of estradiol, leptin deficiency markedly reduced kisspeptin gene expression, particularly in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), and kisspeptin immunoreactive cell numbers in the rostral periventricular region of the third ventricle (RP3V). The HFD model was used to determine the effects of diet-induced obesity and central leptin resistance on kisspeptin cell number and gene expression. DBA/2J mice, which are prone to HFD-induced infertility, showed a marked decrease in kisspeptin expression in both the RP3V and ARC and cell numbers in the RP3V after HFD. This is the first evidence that kisspeptin can be regulated by HFD and/or increased body weight. Next we demonstrated that leptin does not signal (via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 or 5, or mammalian target of rapamycin) directly on kisspeptin-expressing neurons in the RP3V. Lastly, in leptin receptor-deficient mice, neither GnRH nor kisspeptin neurons were activated during a preovulatory-like GnRH/LH surge induction regime, indicating that leptin's actions on GnRH may be upstream of kisspeptin neurons. These data provide evidence that leptin's effects on reproductive function are regulated by kisspeptin neurons in both the ARC and RP3V, although in the latter site the effects are likely to be indirect.Endocrinology 02/2011; 152(4):1541-50. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) onset is associated with changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function. The 54 amino acid kisspeptin (KP) peptide regulates the HPG axis and alters antioxidant enzyme expression. The Alzheimer's amyloid-β (Aβ) is neurotoxic, and this action can be prevented by the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Here, we examined the effects of KP peptides on the neurotoxicity of Aβ, prion protein (PrP), and amylin (IAPP) peptides. The Aβ, PrP, and IAPP peptides stimulated the release of KP and KP 45-54. The KP peptides inhibited the neurotoxicity of Aβ, PrP, and IAPP peptides, via an action that could not be blocked by kisspeptin-receptor (GPR-54) or neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptor antagonists. Knockdown of KiSS-1 gene, which encodes the KP peptides, in human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells with siRNA enhanced the toxicity of amyloid peptides, while KiSS-1 overexpression was neuroprotective. A comparison of the catalase and KP sequences identified a similarity between KP residues 42-51 and the region of catalase that binds Aβ. The KP peptides containing residues 45-50 bound Aβ, PrP, and IAPP, inhibited Congo red binding, and were neuroprotective. These results suggest that KP peptides are neuroprotective against Aβ, IAPP, and PrP peptides via a receptor independent action involving direct binding to the amyloid peptides.ACS Chemical Neuroscience 09/2012; 3(9):706-19. · 3.68 Impact Factor