[Evolution of competence in reading, spelling and comprehension levels in low socioeconomic environments and impact of cognitive and behavioral factors on outcome in two years].
ABSTRACT The prevalence of poor reading skills is particularly high among children from low socioeconomic backgrounds, but no longitudinal studies have been conducted so far in France to determine whether poor reading in a socioeconomically challenged population is persistent and warrants preventive action.
One hundred and fifty-four children were divided into three groups according to their reading skills: poor, intermediate and typical readers. They were followed over a period of 2 years. Reading levels, spelling and comprehension were assessed by standardized measurement scales in order to determine reading outcome and predictive variables.
The reading skills in each group progressed at similar rates, but the differences between the three groups remained relatively constant over the 2 years. The gap between good and poor readers actually increased for the poorest readers. Spelling scores followed a similar pattern and remained weak. Comprehension scores followed a different pattern. Most of the initially poor readers with low comprehension scores almost caught up and reached the level of the typical readers. The best predictive variables of reading and spelling outcome were phonological awareness, rapid naming and attention deficit. The strongest predictive variables for comprehension were IQ, lexical level and attention.
Our results confirm the relative stability of reading measurement across time in poor readers from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Their behavior are similar to the classic dyslexic population. The predictive variables are different depending on whether reading or spelling or comprehension is considered. These results provide a clear agenda for preventive literacy action in children with low socioeconomic levels (SES): phonological decoding and oral language skills in early grades, and screening and treatment of attention disorders.
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ABSTRACT: The literature suggests that a complex relationship exists between the three main skills involved in reading comprehension (decoding, listening comprehension and vocabulary) and that this relationship depends on at least three other factors orthographic transparency, children's grade level and socioeconomic status (SES). This study investigated the relative contribution of the predictors of reading comprehension in a longitudinal design (from beginning to end of the first grade) in 394 French children from low SES families. Reading comprehension was measured at the end of the first grade using two tasks one with short utterances and one with a medium length narrative text. Accuracy in listening comprehension and vocabulary, and fluency of decoding skills, were measured at the beginning and end of the first grade. Accuracy in decoding skills was measured only at the beginning. Regression analyses showed that listening comprehension and decoding skills (accuracy and fluency) always significantly predicted reading comprehension. The contribution of decoding was greater when reading comprehension was assessed via the task using short utterances. Between the two assessments, the contribution of vocabulary, and of decoding skills especially, increased, while that of listening comprehension remained unchanged. These results challenge the 'simple view of reading'. They also have educational implications, since they show that it is possible to assess decoding and reading comprehension very early on in an orthography (i.e., French), which is less deep than the English one even in low SES children. These assessments, associated with those of listening comprehension and vocabulary, may allow early identification of children at risk for reading difficulty, and to set up early remedial training, which is the most effective, for them.PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e78608. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dyslexia is characterized by a severe, persistent reading disorder occurring in an intelligent child. In the large field of learning disabilities, dyslexia is related to a cerebral dysfunction well described with Imagery and genetic studies. Nevertheless the diagnosis of dyslexia cannot be done by another way than clinical symptoms. Optimizing the management of children with dyslexia is a critical issue and is now possible, thanks to the improvement of neurosciences data and the mobilization of the key stakeholders. The knowledge of the precise symptoms is essential in order to lead the child's doctor able to improve coordination and harmonization of teaching and care and guidance of parents.Archives de Pédiatrie 11/2010; 17(12):1734-43. · 0.36 Impact Factor