Bernard HU, Burk RD, Chen Z, van Doorslaer K, Hausen H, de Villiers EMClassification of papillomaviruses (PVs) based on 189 PV types and proposal of taxonomic amendments. Virology 401(1): 70-79

Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry and Program of Public Health, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. <>
Virology (Impact Factor: 3.32). 03/2010; 401(1):70-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2010.02.002
Source: PubMed


We present an expansion of the classification of the family Papillomaviridae, which now contains 29 genera formed by 189 papillomavirus (PV) types isolated from humans (120 types), non-human mammals, birds and reptiles (64, 3 and 2 types, respectively). To accommodate the number of PV genera exceeding the Greek alphabet, the prefix "dyo" is used, continuing after the Omega-PVs with Dyodelta-PVs. The current set of human PVs is contained within five genera, whereas mammalian, avian and reptile PVs are contained within 20, 3 and 1 genera, respectively. We propose standardizations to the names of a number of animal PVs. As prerequisite for a coherent nomenclature of animal PVs, we propose founding a reference center for animal PVs. We discuss that based on emerging species concepts derived from genome sequences, PV types could be promoted to the taxonomic level of species, but we do not recommend implementing this change at the current time.

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    • "BPVs infect primarily cattle determining diseases of considerable economic relevance as they cause various forms of cutaneous and mucosal lesions ranging from papillomatosis to malignant tumors at the urinary bladder and digestive tract level (Batista et al., 2013). Recently, developement of specific biomolecular analysis, mostly based on L1 gene sequencing (Bernard et al., 2010) resulted in identification and characterization of novel viral types. Particularly, improvement of diagnostic procedures resulted in new classification approaches and determined the evolution of the former viral classification, (Jarrett et al., 1984) dividing viral types in subgroups A (BPV type 1, 2 and 5) and B (BPV type 3, 4 and 6) in reason of their genetic and biological features, in a new taxonomy based predominantly on L1 nucleotide sequence similarities (Araldi et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are group of worldwide-spread DNA virus that infect primarily cattle determining diseases of considerable economic relevance. Recently, research on BPVs, received a great impulse owing to the development of specific biomolecular analysis, mostly based on L1 gene sequencing, that resulted in the identification of new viral types. This work is aimed at the identification and molecular and histopathological characterization of BPVs circulating in North West Italy, one of the main national cattle breeding areas. In this study, 71 bioptic specimens were submitted both to histological examination and to PCR and sequencing analysis. Histopathology revealed various lesion types; however, no connections were demonstrated between involved viral types and histopathological findings. BPV DNA was demonstrated in all the analyzed samples and several viral types were detected. Particularly, molecular investigations revealed a broad diffusion of highly pathogenic BPV1 and 2 Deltapapillomavirus and presence of BPV3 and 9 Xipapillomavirus. Two cases of co-infection were also demonstrated. Phylogenetic analysis revealed presence of different clusters and therefore a noteworthy genetic variety among the analyzed viral types. This study provides information on the main BPVs types in North West Italy and our results demonstrate the complexity of viral epidemiology which is characterized by circulation of multiple viral types even inside single herds. Knowledge of the prevalence and of the variety of BPVs is a milestone for the development of appropriate prophylactic and therapeutic measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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    • "To date, more than 180 HPV types have been fully sequenced ( HPVs are not monophyletic and belong instead into five genera, with different types showing differential association with different diseases (Bernard et al., 2010; Bravo et al., 2010; de Villiers, 2013). 1567-1348/Ó 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. "
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    Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 07/2015; 34. DOI:10.1016/j.meegid.2015.07.002 · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    • "Currently, thirteen BPV types have been identified in cattle and characterized in the genera Deltapapillomavirus (BPV1, 2, and 13); Xipapillomavirus (BPV3, 4, 6, 9, 10, 11, and 12); and Epsilonpapillomavirus (BPV5 and 8). While the BPV7 has not been designated into a papillomavirus (PV) genus (Bernard et al. 2010, Lunardi et al. 2013a "
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