Exercise modulates insulin-like growth factor 1-dependent and -independent effects on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and behaviour.
ABSTRACT While physical exercise clearly has beneficial effects on the brain, fomenting neuroprotection as well as promoting neural plasticity and behavioural modifications, the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating these effects are not yet fully understood. We have analyzed sedentary and exercised animals to examine the effects of activity on behaviour (spatial memory and anxiety--as measured by a fear/exploration conflict test), as well as on adult hippocampal neurogenesis (a well-known form of neural plasticity). We have found that the difference in activity between sedentary and exercised animals induced a decrease in the fear/exploration conflict scores (a measure usually accepted as an anxiolytic effect), while no changes are evident in terms of spatial memory learning. The short-term anxiolytic-like effect of exercise was IGF1-dependent and indeed, the recall of hippocampus-dependent spatial memory is impaired by blocking serum IGF1 (as observed by measuring serum IGF levels in the same animals used to analyze the behaviour), irrespective of the activity undertaken by the animals. On the other hand, activity affected neurogenesis as reflected by counting the numbers of several cell populations, while the dependence of this effect on IGF1 varied according to the differentiation state of the new neurons. Hence, while proliferating precursors and postmitotic immature neurons (measured by means of doublecortin and calretinin) are influenced by serum IGF1 levels in both sedentary and exercised animals, premitotic immature neurons (an intermediate stage) respond to exercise independently of serum IGF1. Therefore, we conclude that physical exercise has both serum IGF1-independent and -dependent effects on neural plasticity. Furthermore, several effects mediated by serum IGF1 are induced by physical activity while others are not (both in terms of behaviour and neural plasticity). These findings help to delimit the role of serum IGF1 as a mediator of the effects of exercise, as well as to extend the role of serum IGF1 in the brain in basal conditions. Moreover, these data reveal the complexity of the interaction between neurogenesis, behaviour, and IGF1 under different levels of physical activity.
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ABSTRACT: Background / purpose of the study: Epidemiological evidence suggests that low doses of ionising radiation (<=1.0 Gy) produce persistent alterations in cognition if the exposure occurs at a young age. The mechanisms underlying such alterations are unknown. We investigated the long-term effects of low doses of total body gamma radiation on neonatally exposed NMRI mice on the molecular and cellular level to elucidate neurodegeneration. Significant alterations in spontaneous behaviour were observed at 2 and 4 months following a single 0.5 or 1.0 Gy exposure. Alterations in the brain proteome, transcriptome, and several miRNAs were analysed 6-7 months post-irradiation in the hippocampus, dentate gyrus (DG) and cortex. Signalling pathways related to synaptic actin remodelling such as the Rac1-Cofilin pathway were altered in the cortex and hippocampus. Further, synaptic proteins MAP-2 and PSD-95 were increased in the DG and hippocampus (1.0 Gy). The expression of synaptic plasticity genes Arc, c-Fos and CREB was persistently reduced at 1.0 Gy in the hippocampus and cortex. These changes were coupled to epigenetic modulation via increased levels of microRNAs (miR-132 / miR-212, miR-134). Astrogliosis, activation of insulin-growth factor / insulin signalling and increased level of microglial cytokine TNFalpha indicated radiation-induced neuroinflammation. In addition, adult neurogenesis within the DG was persistently negatively affected after irradiation, particularly at 1.0 Gy. These data suggest that neurocognitive disorders may be induced in adults when exposed at a young age to low and moderate cranial doses of radiation. This raises concerns about radiation safety standards and regulatory practices.Molecular Neurodegeneration 12/2014; 9(1):57. DOI:10.1186/1750-1326-9-57 · 5.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Exercise promotes resilience to stress and increases galanin in the locus coeruleus (LC), but the question of whether changes in galanin signaling mediate the stress-buffering effects of exercise has never been addressed. To test the contributions of galanin to stress resilience, male Sprague Dawley rats received intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannulation for drug delivery and frontocortical cannulation for microdialysis, and were housed with or without a running wheel for 21d. Rats were acutely injected with vehicle or the galanin receptor antagonist M40 and exposed to a single session of either footshock or no stress. Other groups received galanin, the galanin receptor antagonist M40, or vehicle chronically for 21d prior to the stress session. Microdialysis sampling occurred during stress exposure and anxiety-related behavior was measured on the following day in the elevated plus maze. Dendritic spines were visualized by Golgi impregnation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons and quantified. Exercise increased galanin levels in the LC. Under non-stressed conditions, anxiety-related behavior and dopamine levels were comparable between exercised and sedentary rats. In contrast, exposure to stress reduced open arm exploration in sedentary rats but not in exercise rats or those treated chronically with ICV galanin, indicating improved resilience. Both exercise and chronic, ICV galanin prevented the increased dopamine overflow and loss of dendritic spines observed after stress in sedentary rats. Chronic, but not acute M40 administration blocked the resilience-promoting effects of exercise. The results indicate that increased galanin levels promote features of resilience at both behavioral and neural levels.Neuropharmacology 10/2014; 89. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.09.029 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Combining cell transplantation with activity-based rehabilitation is a promising therapeutic approach for spinal cord repair. The present study was designed to investigate potential interactions between the transplantation (TP) of neural stem cells (NSCs) obtained at embryonic day 14 and treadmill training (TMT) in promoting locomotor recovery and structural repair in rat contusive injury model. Combination of TMT with NSC TP at 1 week after injury synergistically improved locomotor function. We report here that combining TMT increased the survival of grafted NSCs by >3-fold and >5-fold at 3 and 9 weeks after injury, respectively. The number of surviving NSCs was significantly correlated with the extent of locomotor recovery. NSCs grafted into the injured spinal cord were under cellular stresses induced by reactive nitrogen or oxygen species, which were markedly attenuated by TMT. TMT increased the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the CSF. Intrathecal infusion of neutralizing IGF-1 antibodies, but not antibodies against either BDNF or Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), abolished the enhanced survival of NSC grafts by TMT. The combination of TP and TMT also resulted in tissue sparing, increased myelination, and restoration of serotonergic fiber innervation to the lumbar spinal cord to a larger extent than that induced by either TP or TMT alone. Therefore, we have discovered unanticipated beneficial effects of TMT in modulating the survival of grafted NSCs via IGF-1. Our study identifies a novel neurobiological basis for complementing NSC-based spinal cord repair with activity-based neurorehabilitative approaches.The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 09/2014; 34(38):12788-800. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5359-13.2014 · 6.75 Impact Factor